EVALUATION OF ANTI-NOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS LINN. (ROOTS) IN SWISS ALBINO MICEAbstract
Amaranthus spinosus, belongs to Amaranthaceae family, is an annual or perennial herb grows annually; native to tropical America and found throughout India as a weed in cultivated as well as fallow lands. Though the whole plant is used as a laxative, the roots are regarded as highly specific for colitis, and it is also used as antipyretic, febrifuge, diuretic. Other than its culinary value, it is utilized in the treatment of bronchitis, digestible, appetizer, biliousness, haematinic, galactagogue, stomachic, flatulence, nausea, anorexia, blood diseases, leucorrhoea, burning sensation, leprosy, and piles. This study aimed to investigate the anti-nociceptive activity of the ethanol extract of the root of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. The anti-nociceptive activity was investigated for its peripheral and central pharmacological action using acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, and tail immersion methods in Swiss albino mice at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Ethanol extract of the root (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed the most significant anti-nociceptive activity in acetic acid induced writhing method with writhing inhibition of 48.83% and 67.44% accordingly, where the standard drug diclofenac-Na (25 mg/kg) showed 72.09% inhibition. In the hot plate test, ethanol extract of the root at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed maximum 61.50% and 62.80% nociception inhibition of thermal stimulus respectively, whereas the standard drug morphine (5 mg/kg) displayed maximum 64.18% nociception inhibition. In the tail immersion test, maximum 67.81% and 75.93% nociception inhibition of thermal stimulus was exhibited with ethanol extract of the root (200 and 400 mg/kg, body weight respectively). The present investigation revealed that ethanol root extracts of Amaranthus spinosus possess potent and dose-dependent central and peripheral anti-nociceptive activity justifying its traditional use in treating painful conditions.