CYTOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF QUERCITIN AND SILYMARIN ON LIPO POLYSACCHARIDE – AND PARAQUAT-INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY IN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES: INFECTIOUS AND NON-INFECTIOUS CHALLENGESAbstract
Cytotoxicity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a bacteria-related compound and paraquat (PQ) as a non-bacterial toxicant on freshly isolated alveolar macrophages (AMs) was studied. At the same time, preventive, protective and therapeutic effects of quercetin (QCN) against LPS-induced and silymarin (SMN) against PQ-produced cytotoxicity as known antioxidants with potent anti-inflammatory property were also investigated. Freshly isolated rat’s AMs were exposed to low, medium and high concentrations of LPS (1, 5 and 10 µg/ml), PQ (1, 5 and 10 µg/ml), QCN (1, 5 and 10 µg/ml) and SMN (25, 50 and 100 µg/ml), separately. After that, the effective concentration of LPS/PQ along with low, medium and high concentrations of QCN/SMN in the forms of preventive, protective and therapeutic was evaluated on cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH), nitric oxide content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of alveolar macrophages. Results showed that both LPS and PQ in a concentration-dependent manner reduced the cell viability and TAC values and elevated the NO content and LDH concentration. By contrast, QCN and SMN administration alone resulted in a non-significant increase of cell viability and significant (P<0.05) elevation of TAC values. Although, both QCN and SMN in all three proposed approaches attenuated the LPS/PQ-induced cytotoxicity respectively, a preventive form of the application, however, was found much appreciable than two other methods. Our data indicate that QCN and SMN could be novel and beneficial compounds to reduce the cytotoxic effects of LPS/PQ in AMs. Equally our findings suggest that AMs may be used as practical tools in further experimental research.
M. Khamisabadi, B. Lotfolahzadeh, A. Alenabi and H. Malekinejad *
Food and Beverages Safety Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.
05 June 2018
03 July 2018
09 July 2018
01 September 2018