COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY (PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB., AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS., TRICHOSANTHES DIOICA ROXB., SYZYGIUM CUMINI LINN. AND MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LINN.)Abstract
Diabetes mellitus is becoming a threat to the world’s population as it is spreading like an epidemic. Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb., Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., S. cumini Linn. and M. charantia Linn. are well known for their properties in the management of diabetes. In recent times, there has been significant growth in the field of Ayurvedic medicines because of their fewer side effects compared to synthetic drugs. Thus, the study of medicinal plants is becoming an integral part of developing herbal medicines for the treatment of diabetes. The present study was performed to determine the pharmacognostic as well as phytochemical similarities and dissimilarities between root, stem, and leaf of these plants. Extensive usages of specific plant parts may lead to the extinction of plant species. To protect them, specific plant parts were thoroughly studied so that those plant parts can be replaced by another part (s) of the same plant. The comparative study included macroscopic observations, powder microscopy study, physicochemical and phytochemical analysis. The pharmacognostic analysis revealed the presence of starch grains in all the samples though compound starch grains were seen only in the stem of S. cumini. Trichomes were only observed in stem and leaf of P. marsupium. Calcium oxalate crystals were seen only in the stem of A. indica and root of P. marsupium. Pitted tracheid was seen in the leaf of M. charantia. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponin, and carbohydrates in root, stem and leaves which are considered to be active constituents for antidiabetic properties of these medicinal plants.
A. Manda *, M. Gupta and C. Maity
Department of Dravyaguna, Institute of Post Graduate Ayurvedic Education and Research, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata - 700009, West Bengal, India.
05 May 2018
07 June 2018
13 June 2018
01 August 2018