A BOON TO HUMAN HEALTH-BAUHINIA VARIEGATAAbstract
The plant Bauhinia varigata is a medium-sized tree found throughout India, ascending to an altitude 1350 m in the Himalayas. It is a species of flowering plant belonging to the family Fabaceae. Kanchnar, Mountain Ebony, Rakta Kanchnar are the common name of Bauhinia varigata. The various parts of the plant like flower buds, flowers, stem, stem bark, leaves, seeds, and roots are used in various indigenous systems of medicine. For the last many years, this plant is very popular among the various ethnic groups in India for the curing of a number of diseases. Traditionally, it is used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, Goiter, Tumor and Kapha- Pitta dosha disorders while flowers have Pittaghna (Pacify pitta dosha), piles, constipation, and leprosy. There are a number of phytochemicals isolated from the various part of kanchnar such as flavonoids, kaempferol, ombuin, hesperidine, triterpenecaffeate, flavonol glycosides, flavanone, stigmasteroles, octacosanol, Phenanthraquinone, protein, calcium and phosphorous, volatile oil, germacrene D, quercetin, rutin, etc. Upon medicinal and biological studies, anti-inflammatory & analgesic activity, chelation action, anticarcinogenic activity, anti-diabetic action, haemagglutinating activity, hypolipidaemic activity, haematinic activity, immunomodulatory activity, anti-microbial activity, nephroprotective activity, neural activity, antioxidant effects, anti-tumor activity, and antiulcer activity have been reported. Along with medicinal uses, the various non-medicinal uses of kachanar are also reported, such as timber, food, fuel, apiculture, and in production of gum resin. There is the various product of kanchnar available in the market, such as kanchnar guggulu, kanchnar juice, kanchanr ki chaal, orchid flower seed, kanchnar kashaya, kanchnar gomutra ark kanchnar churna, kanchnar herbal extract, and thyroid capsule. This review represents a detailed survey of the literature and review highlights the current status of researches on the advancement of pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, traditional, medicinal, non-medicinal uses, pharmacological activities, and marketed products of Bauhinia variegata Linn.