SYZYGIUM CUMINI (JAMUN) ITS MEDICINAL USESHTML Full Text
SYZYGIUM CUMINI (JAMUN) ITS MEDICINAL USES
Subodh Kumar * and Bachchu Singh
Department of Ilmul Advia, Department of Ilaj bit Tadabeer, State Takmeelut-Tib College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Syzygium cumini is a smooth and famous tree, about 8 to 15 meters high with white branchlets and reddish young shoots. Leaves are opposite, shiny and leathery, oblong-ovate to elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 6 to 12 centimeters long, the tip is broad and shortly pointed. In Unani, the kernel (Khasta-e-Jamun) is used for the treatment. A lot of pharmacological work has been scientifically carried out on various parts of Syzygium cumini but some other traditionally important therapeutically uses are also remaining to proof till now scientifically. It has astringent, carminative, stomachic, diuretic, antidiabetic, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, gastro-protective, antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, cardio-protective properties, etc. The various chemical constituents present in Seeds yield glycosides, a trace of pale yellow essential oil, fat, resin, albumin, chlorophyll, an alkaloid- jambosine, gallic acid, 1-galloylglucose, 3-galloylglucose, quercetin, and elements such as zinc, chromium, vanadium, potassium and sodium.
Keywords: Syzygium cumini, Mizaj, (Khasta-e-Jamun, Diabetes, Badal, Studies
INTRODUCTION: Syzygium cumini is a smooth and famous tree, about 8 to 15 meters high with white branchlets and reddish young shoots. Leaves are opposite, shiny and leathery, oblong-ovate to elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 6 to 12 centimeters long, the tip is broad and shortly pointed. Panicles are borne mostly from the branchlets below the leaves, often being axillary or terminal, about 4 to 6 centimeters long. Flowers are small, numerous, scented, pink or nearly white, in clusters, without stalks, borne in crowded fascicles on the ends of the branchlets.
The calyx is funnel-shaped, about 4 millimeters long and 4-toothed. Petals cohere and fall all. Stamens are numerous and about as long as the calyx.
Fruit is oval to elliptic, 1.5 to 3.5 centimeters long, dark purple or nearly black, luscious, fleshy and edible with a sweet, astringent taste; containing a single large seed.
Origin and Distribution: Widely distributed throughout India- Sub-Himalayan tract, Assam, Burma to Malaya and Peninsular India. Found throughout the Philippines, planted and in many regions spontaneous. It also occurs in the Indo-Malayan region, generally 1, 2, 3, 5, 13, 15, 16, 17.
Taxonomical Classification: Botanical classification of Syzygium cumini Kingdom: Plantae, Class: Angiosperms, Order: Myrtales, Family: Myrtaceae, Genus: Syzygium Species: cumimi 5, 13.
Vernacular Name: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
Hindi: Jaman, Jamun
Sanskrit: Jamboo, Raj jamboo
Eng: Jamol, Jambul, Java Plum
Botanical Name: Syzygium cumini L.
Unani Description of Syzygium cumini L: 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14 It is very famous and big size tree in India. The fruits of this plant are edible. The seeds of the fruits called kernel (Khasta-e-Jamun), which is used in diabetes and leaves & barks are also used in Unani system of medicine.
Parts used (Azja-e-Mustemil): Leaves, bark, fruits, kernel (Khasta-e-Jamun).
Temperament (Mizaj): Cold &Dry in 2nd.
Action (A’afal): Muqawwi-e-Medawa Jigar Har (Tonic for Hot Stomach & Liver), Moharrik Ishtha (Appetizer stimulant), Qabiz (Constipant), Musakin-e-Hararat (Analgesic).
Action (Istemal): Taqwiyat-e-Medawa Jigar, Mushtahi (Appetizer), Ishal-e-Safrawiwa Damwi ko band kartahai, Ziabetees (Diabetes).
Main Action (Naf-e-Kkas): HabisIshal, Muqawwi-e-Meda (Tonic for Stomach).
Side Effect (MuzirAsrat): Nfakh (Dispersion) aur Der-e-Hazm (Delay in digestion).
Antidote (Musleh): Kalimirch (Piper nigrum) and Namak (Sodium chloride).
Substitute (Badal): Chhota Bade ka Badal hai (Small is a substitute of bigger).
Compound formulations (Murakkab): Sirka (vinegar)
History: Widely distributed in cultivation in all over India. It is also found throughout the Philippines, planted and in many regions spontaneous. Probably of prehistoric introduction from Malaya. Also occurs in the Indo-Malayan region generally.
Folkloric: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
- In the Philippines, a decoction of the bark is given internally for dysentery. Bark decoction is also used as anemia.
- Diarrhea: Liberal amounts of the fleshy portion of the fruit. Decoction of the bark is used as a gargle or mouthwash for gingivitis and mouth ulcerations.
- Fresh juice of the bark given with goat's milk for diarrhea in children. Bark decoction as an astringent wash for wounds.
- Ripe fruit is astringent and considered an efficient remedy for diabetes. Decoction of leaves and bark is also used for the same purpose, but the ripe fruit is considered the best.
- Pulverized dried seeds are also used for diabetes: powdered seeds and root-bark are used for diarrhea.
- In India, seeds are used for diabetes. The bark is used for diarrhea, dysentery and spongy gums. A poultice of leaves is used for skin complaints. Powdered seeds are also used for menorrhagia.
- In Unani medicine, seeds used as liver tonic enrich the blood, strengthen the teeth and gums, and as a lotion to remove ringworm of the head. Fruit is used as astringent in bilious diarrhea, a gargle for sore throat and a lotion in tinea-capitis.
- Vinegar is prepared from the juice of the ripe fruit used as stomachic, carminative, and diuretic. Juice of leaves, alone or with other astringents, used for dysentery. The bark is used for sore throats, indigestion, appetite loss, leucorrhea, bronchitis, asthma, ulcers and dysentery.
- In Brazil, leaves and fruits are used to treat infectious diseases, diabetes and stomachaches.
Ethno-pharmacological Uses: One of the most popular fruits in the Philippines. Ripe fruit is eaten outright. Juice can be made into wine; used in the manufacture of red wine. Fruit is a good source of calcium and a fair source of iron. In Malaya, vinegar is made from the juice of the unripe fruit 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 13, 14, 23.
Chemical Constituents: Seeds yield glycosides, a trace of pale yellow essential oil, fat, resin, albumin, chlorophyll, an alkaloid- jambosine, gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin and related tannin,3,6-hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose and its isomer 4,6- hexahydroxydiphenoylglucose, 1-galloylglucose, 3-galloylglucose, quercetin and elements such as zinc, chromium, vanadium, potassium, and sodium. Unsaponifiable matter of seed fat contains β-sitosterol. Phytochemical screening of the seeds yielded alkaloids, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, phenols, glycosides, saponins, tannins, steroids, triterpenoids. The study of seeds yielded neither alkaloid nor enzyme but an abundance of starch and tannin. Proximate analysis showed: Moisture 8.0, starch (diatase) 41.4, crude fiber 2.3, pentosans 2.1, protein 6.3, ash 2.9, dextrin 2.1 and tannin 6.0 35, 38, 42, 59, 61.
Pharmacological Action: Syzygium cumini is considered astringent, carminative, stomachic, diuretic, antidiabetic, and anti-diarrheal. Studies have shown antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, radio protective, gastro-protective, antioxidant, CNS depressant, anti-allergic, anti-cancer, antibacterial, cardio-protective properties.
- Antioxidant / Tannins / Fruits:Study isolated tannins from the fruit of Syzygium cumini and suggests the use of the fruit as a significant source of natural antioxidants.
- Antioxidant / FruitStudy showed a significant correlation between extract concentration and percentage of free radical inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Authors suggest the antioxidant property of the fruit skin of Syzygium cumini may come in part from the antioxidant vitamins, phenolics, tannins, and anthocyanins present in the fruit 15.
- Anti-Diabetes / Bark: The animal study of aqueous extract from Syzygium cumini bark showed stimulation of development of insulin-positive cells from the pancreatic duct epithelial cells.
- Anti-Diabetic / α-Glucosidase / Seed Kernels: Study of Syzygium cumini seed kernel extracts in vitro and in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats showed inhibition of a-glucosidase as a possible mechanism for its antidiabetic effect 17.
- Phytochemicals: Investigation on a Tropical Plant, Syzygium cumini from South India: Phytochemicals screening of extracts of Syzygium cumini seed revealed alkaloids, amino acids, phytosterols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenoids. These phytochemicals probably explain the plant's medicinal properties 18.
- Anti-inflammatory / Seeds: The study on SC extracts established the anti-inflammatory activity of the Syzygium cumini seeds 19.
- Radioprotective:The study evaluated the influence of a seed extract of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) on mice exposed to different doses of GAMMA.-radiation: SCE treatment protected mice against radiation sickness and mortality against all doses and showed an increased survival 20.
- Gastroprotective: The gastroprotective effect of tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats: The study suggests the tannins extracted from SC have gastroprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effects 21.
- Red Wine Source:A study prepared a red wine from the anthocyanin-rich fruit of Syzygium cumini through fermentation using wine yeast 22.
- Depressant Central Nervous System Activity:An animal study of seed extract of Syzygium cumini showed the dose-dependent depressant effect of locomotion attributed to the presence of saponins 24.
- α-Amylase Inhibition / Anti-Hyperglycemic / Seeds:Study of 11 medicinal plants showed Syzygium cumini seeds with strong inhibition of a-amylase activity. Crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts reduced glycaemia of diabetic rats. The bark showed anti-hyperglycemic activity on oral glucose tolerance testing. Seed extract yielded betulinic acid and 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy flavanone. The compound showed high a-amylase inhibitor activity, but the inhibitory activity of the individuals compounds needs further testing and verification 25.
- Anti-cervical Cancer: Study of cumini extract showed inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cervical cancer cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner 26.
- Anti-Allergic:Study of on the aqueous leaf extract of Syzygium cumini showed the main components to be hydrolyzable tannins and flavonoids. Results showed inhibition of paw edema, edema induced by histamine, prevention of mast cell degranulation, and consequent histamine release in Wistar rat peritoneal mast cells. The findings demonstrate an anti-allergic effect; the anti-edematogenic effect is attributed to inhibition of mast cell degranulation 27.
- Prophylactic Anti-Septic Effect:The study concluded that treatment with jambolanum has a potent prophylactic anti-septic effect, not due to a direct microbicidal effect but rather associated with recruitment of activated neutrophils to the infectious site and to a diminished anti-inflammatory response 28.
- Antibacterial / Glucoamylase Inhibitor / Anti-Diabetic / Seeds:Study of ethanol extract of seeds of Syzygium cumini showed moderate to good antibacterial activity against coli, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. It also showed to be a potent inhibitor of glucoamylase and suggests a hypoglycemic function in type-2 diabetes that may be independent of functioning B-cells 29.
- Cardio Protective: Study of a methanolic extract of Syzygium cumini seeds on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats confirmed a cardioprotective effect 30.
- Radio Protective: A study demonstrated Syzygium cumini (jamun) extract protected mice against radiation-induced DNA damage, and inhibition of radiation-induced free radical formation may be one of the mechanisms of radioprotection 31.
- Randomized, Double-blind, Double-Dummy, Controlled Diabetic Trial / No Anti-hyperglycemic Effect: Results showed a significant reduction in patients treated with glyburide, with no changes in those treated with Syzgium cumini The tea and extracts prepared from leaves of S. cumini were shown to be pharmacologically inert, showing no anti-hyperglycemic effect 32.
- Anti-Vibrio Cholera Activity: The study investigated the ethanol extract of leaf of Syzgium cumini against Vibrio cholerae serogroups Ogawa and Inaba. The EEL effectively inhibited the growth of both serogroups with the fragmentation of genomic DNA. Results showed potential growth inhibitory activity against multi-drug resistant Vibrios and suggest a potential for effective candidates to combat cholera 33.
- Fruit-Pulp Activity against Fluoride-Induced Toxicity:The study evaluated the ameliorative effect of Syzygium cumini fruit extract in male albino mice against fluoride exposure. Results showed revitalization of steroid genesis and spermatogenesis, with ameliorative potentials in male sex-related toxicology, with spermatogonia and interstitial tissue reclamation after jambul extract treatment 34.
- Antioxidant Study / Fruit Pulp, Kernel, Seed Coat: Syzygium cumini (Jamun) pulp ethanol extract (PEE), kernel ethanol extract (KEE), and seed coat ethanol extract (SCEE) showed a high degree of phenolic enrichment. An alcoholic extract was evaluated for antioxidant potential against DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, peroxide radicals, and lipid peroxidation 35.
- Diuretic / Bark: The study evaluated the diuretic activity of various extracts of bark of cumini in Wistar albino rats. Results showed that methanol and aqueous extracts possess diuretic activity as evidenced by an increase in total urine output, significant increase in excretion of sodium and potassium 36.
- Anti-Diabetic / Mycaminose / Seed: Study of isolated compound mycaminose and AE and ME of cumini seeds against STZ-induced diabetic rats showed antidiabetic effects with a significant reduction (p<0.05) in blood glucose37.
- Immuno-modulatory / Seeds: Mastan et al., suggested the methanolic extract of seeds possesses promising immuno-modulatory activity. In a haemagglutination reaction and delayed-type hypersensitivity response in rats induced by Sheep RBC, there was a significant dose-dependent increase in total WBC, neutrophils, and lymphocytes 38.
- Biosorbent / Leaves: The study reports the adsorption capabilities of cumini leaves for crystal violet and eosin B using the batch adsorption method. Adsorption of crystal violet was endothermic while that of Eosin B was exothermic, both spontaneous at all temperatures 39.
- Anti-Breast Cancer / Fruit Pulp: The study evaluated various concentrations of methanolic extract of fruit pulp for in-vitro cytotoxicity activity against MCF-7 cells using MTT assay. Cell viability was inhibited to different extents by different concentrations of the extract 43.
- Antimicrobial Cancer / Fruit Pulp: Study of various extracts of stems and leaves showed antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. A maximum zone of inhibition was seen against routellaplantikola. It also showed maximum inhibition against fungal strains Penicillum chrysogenum and minimum inhibition against Candida albicans 44.
- Cuminoside / Cardioprotective / Anti-diabetic / Seeds: The study evaluated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of cumini seeds in normal and NIDDM in rats. The study isolated an active principle, Cuminoside, which caused a significant reduction in FBS in diabetic rats, a significant reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, ALT, AST, and LDH, together with improvement in HDL levels. Results suggest cuminoside has cardioprotective potential and Antidiabetic activity.
- Protection Against Diabetes Induced Ulcerogenic Stimuli / Seeds: The study evaluated the protective effect of jambolana alone and combined with Acarbose in T2D rats exposed to models that caused ulcerogenic stimuli. Results suggest the concurrent administration of S. cumini and Acarbose at low doses may have prevented the development of diabetes-induced ulcerogenic stimuli by decreasing gastric oxidative stress and providing a direct gastroprotective action. The low dose combination may have provided a synergistic ulcer protective effect 45.
- Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: A study of methanol extract of leaves showed the SC leaf had remarkable acute (carrageenan, histamine, and serotonin-induced rat paw edema) and chronic (cotton pellet induced rat granuloma) anti-inflammatory actions in the tested rodent models.
- Anti-inflammatory Activity: The study evaluated an ethanol extract of leaves for anti-inflammatory activity and bioactive compounds. Bioactive compound tannins at 100 µg/ml concentration showed 99.50% inhibition of heat-induced protein denaturation compared with standard aspirin at 89.26%. In HRBC membrane stabilization activity, tannins at 1 mg/ml showed 82.94% protection of HRBC membrane, compared to standard diclofenac at 70.41% 46.
- Effect of Prolonged Treatment with cumini on Salivary Glands: The study evaluated prolonged treatment with S. umini sheet aqueous extract on the structure of cells responsible for a secretory process in parotid submandibular salivary glands of spontaneously diabetic mice. Results showed structural alterations in the salivary glands of mice with nuclear and cytoplasmic atrophy, and occurrence of inflammatory cells and elevated blood sugar levels 47.
- Antihypertensive / Leaves: The study evaluated the in vivo potential antihypertensive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Syzygium cumini leaves in normotensive Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and in vitro effect on vascular reactivity of resistance arteries. Results showed a reduction of blood pressure and heart rate of SHR, probably due to the inhibition of arterial tone and extracellular calcium influx 48.
- Antidiabetic activity of Syzygium cumini and its isolated compound against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats 49.
- Platelet Effect / Protection from Oxidative Damage / Leaves: The study evaluated the in-vitro effects of cumini incubation on platelets from patients with diabetes to test its efficacy as potential adjuvant therapy. Results showed in Sc activity counteracts oxidative damage by improving platelet function through augmented membrane fluidity and Na+/K+ ATPase activity and functionally enhancing the antioxidant system by increasing NO levels, SOD, and TAC. SC supplementation may have a preventive and protective effect in oxidative damage progression associated with diabetes mellitus and its complications 50.
- Protective Against Mitochondrial Dysfunction: The study evaluated various extracts of cumini and Bauhinia forficata on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in-vitro, as well as protective activities against toxic agents. The major chemical constituent of S. cumini was rutin. S. cumini reduced DPPH radical more than B. forficata, and showed iron chelating activity. Both partially prevented lipid peroxidation. S. cumini was effective against mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca2+. Results suggest S. cumini might represent a therapeutic option for the treatment of diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction 51.
- Chemopreventive / Anti-carcinogenic / DMBA-Induced Skin Papillomagenesis: The study evaluated the protective effect of cumini seed extract against peroxidative damage contributing to skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Results suggest an anti-carcinogenic impact during DMBA-induced skin papilloma genesis that is mediated through alteration of antioxidant status 52.
- Radioprotection / Seeds: Study the effect of a seed extract of cumini in normal and tumor-bearing mice against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage in biological tissues. Results suggest the seed extract has protective effects against radiation-induced cellular damage and biological alterations, which may be attributed to the scavenging of free radicals and antioxidant properties. The author suggests the seed extract may be used in combination with radiation to protect against oxidative stress and mitigate the side effects of radiation to normal tissues 53.
- Biosorbent / Seed: Study reports on a very low-cost biosobent from cumini seeds for the treatment of hexavalent chromium from contaminated waters 54.
- Antibacterial / Dental Caries / Leaves: The study investigated the in vitro antibacterial activity of leaves of cumini against Streptococcus viridans, S. mutans, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. subtilis. Aqueous, methanolic, hexane, and EA extract of leaves exhibited antimicrobial activity against dental caries causing strains. Results suggest a potential phytomedicine source to cure dental caries 55.
- Hepato-protection / Seed: Study of an aqueous extract of cumini’s seed powder on hepato-protection in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed a dose-dependent protective effect 56.
- Sustained Release Matrix Tablets / Anti-Diabetic: Study reports on the formulation of Metformin HCl sustained release matrix tablets using cumini as a release rate retarding agent, which is also antidiabetic by means of wet granulation method. The antidiabetic activity was evaluated with the alloxan model of experimental rats. Results suggest that the S. cumini extract acted as a good release rate retarding agent and showed promising additive Antidiabetic activity with Metformin 57.
- Nephroprotective / Seed: The study evaluated the nephroprotective effect of an aqueous extract of cumini seed in diabetic Wistar albino rats. High-dose seed extract and standard oral hypoglycemic drugs showed a significant decrease in creatinine and urea levels. The seed powder extract showed a significant Nephroprotective effect 58.
- Staining Capability / Seed: The study evaluated the staining capability of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from cumini, C. blumei, S. pallida and B. vulgaris as dyestuffs on different fungal species. Results showed the extracts can be alternative biological stains to Lactophenol cotton blue in staining Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum 59.
- Antioxidant / Leaf Gall Extracts: The study evaluated leaf gall extracts for antioxidant activity using DPPH, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and FRAP methods. In all methods, the methanolic extract showed a higher antioxidant potential than standard ascorbic acid. The antioxidant activity correlated with the high content of total polyphenols/flavonoids of the methanol extract 61.
- Anti-Leishmanial Activity / α-Pinene / Essential Oil: The study evaluated the effects of essential oil and its major component α-pinene on Leishmania amazonensis. A study showed α-pinene was effective against amazonensis promastigote forms, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.7 µg/mL. The anti-leishmanial effects were mediated by immuno-modulatory activity as evidenced by an increased in phagocytic and lysosomal activities.
- Biogenic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial Leaves: Study reports on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini leaf extract. The synthesized nanoparticles showed effective antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacterial species 60.
- Anti-diarrheal Activity / Seed: The study evaluated the anti-diarrheal activity of aqueous extract of cumini’s seeds in mice in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model and charcoal meal test. Results showed the extract exhibited a significant and dose-dependent anti-diarrheal effect attributed to anti-motility and anti-secretory effect 62.
- Anti-Hyperglycemic / Anti-Hyperlipidemic / Seeds: Study of cumini seed extract showed anti-hyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. SC significantly (p<0.05) reduced serum glucose, TC, TG, LDL, VLDL, and increased HDL. LD50 was found to be 1000 mg/kg. No toxic symptoms were observed at 150 and 250 mg/kg doses 63.
- Homeopathic Tincture in Diabetes: Study evaluated the remedial effects of homeopathic mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on metabolic disorders of STZ-induced diabetic male albino rat. The homeopathic tincture of jambolanum showed the therapeutic effect on metabolic disorders and oxidative injuries in STZ-induced diabetic rats 64.
- Comparative Antioxidant Activity: The study evaluated methanolic extracts of seeds, leaves, fruit pulp of cumini. Results showed the total phenolic and flavonoid content in leaves is higher than in the pulp and seed extracts. A linear correlation was shown between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity 65.
- Antidiabetic / Seeds: Various active constituents in the seeds of cumini help control glucose homeostasis through its effects of different pathways of the hyperglycemic process viz., insulin-mimetic and insulinotropic effect. It acts as an antidiabetic by stimulating insulin release from beta cells or by lowering glucose absorption in the intestine, hepatic glucose production and boosting insulin sensitivity by enhancing peripheral glucose uptake and utilization, activation of nuclear PPAR-y 66.
- α-Amylase Inhibitors / Seeds: Aqueous extract of cumini seeds and Psidium guajava leaves showed higher inhibition against porcine pancreatic a-amylase among medicinal plants studies. LC=MS study of seed extract of S. cumini yielded betulinic acid and 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxy flavanone. The inhibition was non-competitive in nature 67.
- Improvement in Metabolic and Ovarian Parameters in Obese Female Rats with Malfunctioning of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis: The study evaluated the effects of a hydroethanolic extract of cumini leaves in female reproductive impairments in an obese model of neonatal L-monosodium glutamate injection. Results showed the reversibility of the reproductive dysfunctions seen in MSG female rats through ethnopharmacological treatment. It expands the use of HRESc as a prominent tool to treat metabolic and reproductive disorders. The study also provided novel evidence that without a functioning hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, metabolic improvement is ineffective for estrous activity but critical for ovarian follicle health 68.
- Protective Effects of Polyphenols Rich Extract on Oxidative Stress-Induced Diabetes / Leaves: The study evaluated the antidiabetic effects of a novel polyphenol-rich extract (PESc) from leaves of cumini in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Results showed in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant activities of PESc obtained from leaves. Results suggest myricetin, quercetin and gallic acid compose a Phyto complex with poorly understood synergistic mechanisms. Results suggest the potential use of the novel polyphenol-enriched extract from leaves as a source of Antidiabetic products 69.
- Effect of Season on UZV Absorbing Property / Sunscreen Potential / Leaves: The study evaluated the effect of season on the UV absorbing property of cumini leaves collected in summer, winter, autumn, and rainy seasons. Results showed the acetone extract of leaves of the rainy season had maximum UV absorbing property. The polyphenol content of the leaves was also high during the rainy season. The study suggests the acetone extract of S. cumini leaves of the rainy season may be used as an anti-solar agent in the preparation of sunscreen lotions 70.
- Effect of Seed Powder on Pancreatic Islets of Alloxan Diabetic Rats: Study of an ethanolic extract of seed powder of cumini increased body weight and decreased blood sugar level in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. The extract feeding showed definite improvement in the histopathology of islets. Significantly, the drop in blood sugar to normal levels after extract feeding was not elevated when the extract was discontinued for 15 days. Results suggest the effect may be curative rather than palliative. Improvements in islet histopathology and glycogen localization suggest the same 71.
- Antioxidant / Leaves: The study investigated the antioxidant activity of various Syzygium cumini leaf extracts using DPPH radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays.
- Results showed the ethyl acetate fraction showed stronger antioxidant activity than others. HPLC data showed the leaf extracts contained phenolic compounds, such as ferulic acid and catechin, which are responsible for their antioxidant activity. There was a significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, free radical scavenging ability and the content of phenolic compounds in the leaf extracts 72.
- Antibacterial / Antioxidant / Neuroprotective / Stem: The study evaluated the antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, and neuro-protective ability of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of stem of cumini. Results showed antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of stems; the alcoholic extract showed maximum activity against B. amyloliquefaciens and S. aureus. A methanolic extract showed a higher level of antioxidant activity compared to the aqueous extract. The neuroprotective activity was observed on rat pheochromocytoma (PC)-12 cell line by giving neurotoxic shock using 6-hydroxydopamine. The ethanolic extract showed a maximum number of viable cells, i.e., 75% compared to aqueous extract at 50% 73.
- Elimination of Deleterious Effects of DMBA-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis / Seed: The study evaluated the inhibition of tumor incidence by hydroalcoholic extract of cumini seed in mice on a two-stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by a single application of DMBA. A significant improvement in impairment was seen in measures of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, among others. Results suggest possible chemopreventive properties against DMBA induced skin carcinogenesis in mice 74.
- Anti-Hyperlipidemic / Seeds: High cholesterol diet-fed diabetic rats exhibited a significant increase in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, and high-density lipoprotein. Treatment with seed extract significantly decreased TC, LDL, VLDL, atherogenic index and significantly increased the HDL, HDL ratio in Hyperlipidemic rats. The anti-hyper-lipidemic activity may be due to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, tannins (gallic acid and ellagic acid), and triterpenoids 75.
- Vasorelaxant Effect Mediated by Inhibition of Calcium Channels / Leaves: The study evaluated the ability of hexane extract and chloroform fraction of SC leaves in promoting vasorelaxation on resistance artery rings. Results suggest cumini acts as a vasorelaxant agent and interferes with vascular smooth muscle cell responsiveness, probably acting on regulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels through voltage-operated calcium channels 76.
- Anti-Inflammatory on Chemotaxis of Human Neutrophils: Study evaluated an aqueous seed extract of cumini for anti-inflammatory properties using neutrophils chemotaxis as a model system. Results showed significant inhibition of neutrophils chemotaxis towards a bacteria-derived chemoattractant (f-met-leu-phe). Results suggest the seed extract has the potential to elicit anti-inflammatory effects 77.
- Thrombolytic / Seeds: The study evaluated the thrombolytic potential of an ethanol seed extract of Syzygium cumini. The ethanol seed extract exerted 34% clot lysis from clotted blood in thrombolytic activity test compared to standard streptokinase and control at 79% and 3%, respectively 78.
Availability: Wild-crafted, Seasonal fruiting, Extracts and tinctures in the cyber market.
CONCLUSION: Syzygium cumini is an easily available plant. The fruits being a lot of potent pharmacological activities. The plant belongs to the family Myrtaceae, which has given us many important medicinal plants like S. caryphyllifolium, S. jambolana, S. obovatum, S. obtusifolium, S. cumini etc. Hence, it was not wrong to state that still a lot has to be worked upon this important plant. Apart from this, old traditional texts like Unani, Ayurveda, mention the protective role of Syzygium cumini on important body organs like kidney, digestive etc, many of which are scientifically proven. It contains almost all the properties of pharmaceutical care designed like Astringent, carminative, stomachic, diuretic, antidiabetic, anti-diarrheal. Studies have shown antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective, gastro-protective, antioxidant, CNS depressant, anti-allergic, anti-cancer, antibacterial, cardio-protective etc. In developing countries like India, one must fully explore this important medicinal plant which might provide us some critical “leads” in the near future.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: Nil
- Kmh DS: Unani Dravyaguna Aadrsh, Ayurvedic- Tibbi Akadamee, Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow 1974; 336-37.
- Ghani HN: Khazainul Advia. New Delhi: Idara Kitab ul Shifa; (YNM): 545-47.
- Shifa Kabiruddin. Makhzanul Mufradat yani Kitabul Advia. New Delhi, Idara Kitabul 2007; 20(75): 125.
- Evans WC, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 15th Delhi: Rajkamal Electric Press 2005; 420-77.
- The Wealth of India. Vol. 3rd, New Delhi: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research 1956; 218.
- SA, Unani Advia Mufarda, New Delhi, Turki Urdu Beuro 1984; 72-73.
- Ashraf SMH: Makhzanul Mufardat Sarah Murrakbat wa Khaws ul Advia. New Delhi: Aizaj Publishing House 2005; 63.
- Bari A: Al-Shareef Jame ul Advia, Faisal Publication, Jama Masjid, Devband, (YNM), P-75, 86.
- Hkm Mohd. Fazlullah, Makhzan ul Mufaradat, “Jame ul Advia” Royal Printing Press, Lucknow, YNM, P-85.
- Makhzan ul Mufaradat, “Khwas ul Advia” Dar Matba Iftekhar, Delhi, Zevar Poseed 1905; 18-19.
- Kirtikar KR and Basu BD: Indian Medicinal Plants. 2nd Edition in four volumes, Vol-2nd, Published by- Lalit Mohan Basu, Allahabad, U.P., India, YNM, P-1052.
- Md. Kabeeruddin, “Bayaz e Kabeer” ‘Mukammal Teen Hissa Yakaza’, Idara Kita ul Shifa, 2075, 1st Floor, Masjid wali Nahur Khan Street, Kucha Chelan, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002, P-260.
- Khare CP, Indian Medicinal Plants, “An Illustrated Dictionary” Springer, SPIN: 11979302-543210, P-637.
- Antioxidant tannins from Syzygium cumini fruit / African Journal of Biotechnology 2009; 8(10): 2301-309.
- Rosely D and Schossler C: Syzygium cumini and the regeneration of insulin positive cells from the pancreatic duct. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science 2004; 41: 236-39.
- Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels seed kernel in vitro and in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats / doi: 10.1016/j.carres 2008.03.003.
- Kumar AR and Ilavarasan: Phytochemicals Investigation on a Tropical Plant, Syzygium cumini from South India / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2009; 8(1): 83-85.
- Kumar A: Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini seed African Journal of Biotechnology 2008; 7(8): 941-43.
- Influence of Seed Extract of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) on Mice Exposed to Different Doses of g-radiation / Journal of Radiation Research 2005; 46(1): 59-65.
- The gastro protective effect of tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats.
- Syzygium cumini, (Linn) Skeels).
- Fermentation of Jamun (Syzgium cumini L.) Fruits to Form Red Wine / ASEAN Food J 2007; 14(1): 15-23.
- A Kumar: Central Nervous System Activity of Syzygium cumini Seed Pakistan J of Nutrition 2007; 6(6): 698-700.
- Karthic K: Identification of a-amylase inhhibitors from Syzgium cumini Linn seeds / Indian J Exp Biol 2008.
- Banerjee A: In-vitro study of antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini fruit Food Chemistry 2005; 90(4): 727-33
- Barb D and Viswanathan G: Syzygium cumini inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in cervical cancer cell lines: A primary study e Cancer Medical Science 2008; 2(83): DOI: 10.3332/ecancer.2008.83.
- Brito FA: Pharmacological study of anti-allergic activity of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. Braz J Med Biol Res 2007; 40(1): 105-15.
- Marcia CG and Farias JC: Syzygium jambolanum treatment improves survival in lethal sepsis induced in mice. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008, 8: 57.
- Sorting Syzygium names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database.
- Modi DC, Patel JK, Shah BN and Nayak BS: Pharmacognostic Studies of The Seed of Syzygium cumini Pharma Science Monitor 2010; 1(1).
- Meshram ga and Yadav SS: Antibacterial study and effect of ethanolic extracts of Syzygium cumini seeds powder on glucoamylase in-vitro. J Pharm Sci & Res 2011; 3(2): 1060-63.
- Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini leaf against experimentally induced acute and chronic inflammations in rodents. Anirban Roy, Sanjib Bhattacharya, Jitendra N. Pandey, Moulisha Biswas / DOAJ, Vol 1, No 1 (2011) / 10.4081/ams.2011.e6.
- Cardioprotective Effect of Methanolic Extract of Syzygium cumini Seeds on Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction In Rats / SK Mastan, G Chaitanya, T Bhavya Latha, A Srikanth, G Sumalatha, K Eswar Kumar / Scholars Research Library.
- Inhibition of Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Jamun, Syzygium cumini, in the Cultured Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of γ-Radiation Ganesh Chandra Jagetia, Prakash Chandra Shetty, Mamidipudi Srinivasa Vidyasagar / Integrative Cancer Therapies.
- Teixeira CC, Weinert LS, Barbosa DC, Ricken C, Esteves JF and Fuchs FD: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Results of a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2004; 27(12): 3019-020.
- Ahsan N, Paul N, Islam N and Akhand AA: Leaf Extract of Syzygium cumini shows anti-vibrio activity involving dna damage. Dhaka Univ J Pharm Sci 2012; 11(1): 25-28.
- Ahmad KR, Nauroze T, Raees K, Abbas T, Kanwal MA, Noor S and Jabeena S: Protective Role of Jambul (Syzygium cumini) fruit-pulp extract against fluoride-induced toxicity in mice testis: a histopathological study. Research Report Fluoride 2012; 45(32): 281-89.
- Benherlal PS and Arumughan C: Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant studies on Syzygium cumini J Sci Food Agric 2007; 87(14): 2560-9.
- Chandavarkar S and Mamie DSN: Diuretic activity of different extracts of bark of Syzygium cumini Int. J. Res. Ayurveda Pharm 20145; (1).
- Kumar A, Ilavarasan R, Jayachandran T, Deecaraman M, Aravindan P, Padmanabhan N and Krishan MRV: Antidiabetic activity of Syzygium cumini and its isolated compound against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2008; 2(9): 246-49.
- Ahsan N, Paul N, Islam N and Anwarul A: Nutritive, therapeutic and processing aspects of Jamun, Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels- An overview. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 2014; 5(4): 295-307.
- Tripathy G and Pradhan D: In-vitro anti breast cancer activity of Syzygium cumini against MCF-7 Cell Line. JIPBS 2015; 2(2): 119-24.
- Pareek A, Meena RK and Yadav B: Antimicrobial activity of Syzygium cumini. Indian Journal of Applied Research 2015; 5(9).
- Jonnalagadda A, Maharaja KK and Kumar NP: Combined Effect of Syzygium cumini Seed Kernel Extract with Oral Hypoglycemics in Diabetes Induced Increase in Susceptability to Ulcerogenic Stimuli. J Diabetes Metab 4: 236. / doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000236.
- Silva A, Amaro EC, Zorzi SR, Cunha MR, Carvalho CAF and Caldeira EJ: Effects of prolonged treatment with Syzygium cumini on the salivary glands of spontaneously diabetic mice. Braz J Morphol Sci 2009; 26(2): 62-67.
- Raza A, Ali MU, Nisar T, Qasrani SA, Hussain R and Nawaz Sharif MN: Proximate Composition of Jamun (Syzygium cumini) Fruit and Seed. American-Eurasian J. Agric & Environ Sci 15(7): 1221-23 / DOI: 10.5829/ idosi.aejaes.2015.15.7.12700.
- Antihypertensive Effect of Syzygium cumini in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats / Rachel Melo Ribeiro, Vicente Férrer Pinheiro Neto, Kllysmann Santos Ribeiro, Denilson Amorim Vieira, Iracelle Carvalho Abreu, Selma do Nascimento Silva, Maria do Socorro de Sousa Cartágenes, Sônia Maria de Farias Freire, Antonio Carlos Romao Borges, and Marilene Oliveira da Rocha Borges / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org /10.1155/ 2014/605452.
- Effects of in vitro supplementation with Syzygium cumini (L.) on platelets from subjects affected by diabetes mellitus / Francesca Raffaelli, Francesca Borroni, Alessandro Alidori, Giacomo Tirabassi, Emanuela Faloia, Rosa Anna Rabini, Alessia Giulietti, Laura Mazzanti, Laura Nanetti & Arianna Vignini / Platelets, Early Online: 1–6 / DOI: 10.3109/09537104.2014.980797.
- Ecker A, Vieira FA and Prestes ADS: Effect of Syzygium cumini and Bauhinia Forficata aqueous-leaf extracts on oxidative and mitochondrial parameters in-vitro. EXCLI Journal 2015; 14: 1219-31.
- Sikder MAA, Kaisar MA, Rahman MS, Hasan CM, Al-Rehaily AJ and Rashid MA: Secondary Metabolites from Seed Extracts of Syzygium cumini (L.). Journal of Physical Science 2012; 23(1): 83-87.
- Parmar J, Sharma P, Verma P, Sharma P and Goyal PK: Chemopreventive Action of Syzygium cumini on DMBA - induced Skin Papillomagenesis in Mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 2010; 11.
- Sharma A, Soya I, Dhanraj and Goyal PK: Radioprotection by seed extract of Syzygium cumini in normal tissues of fibrosarcoma bearing mice. Indian Society for Radiation Biology, Delhi (India); K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Mangalore (India); 90 p; Oct 2013; p. 61; ICRB-2013: international conference on radiation biology and clinical applications; Mangalore India 2013; 25-27.
- Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Contaminated Waters Using Syzygium cumini Seed Biosorbent / Supriya Singh, Alka Tripathi & S K Srivastava / International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science 2015; 3(3).
- Tahir L, Ahmed S, aqi Hussain N, Perveen I and Rahman S: Effect of Leaves Extract of Indigenous Species of Syzygium cumini On Dental Caries Causing Pathogens. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2012; 3(3): 1032-038.
- Behera SR, Sekkizhar M and Babu KS: Hepato-protective activity of Aqueous Extract of Syzygium cumini seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. International J of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine 2014; 4(2): 1470-77.
- Aruna N and Babu MK: Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablets containing metformin HCl And Syzygium cumini. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2011; 2(3): 900-05.
- Behera SR, Sekkizhar M and Sarath Babu K SB: Nephro-protective effect of aqueous extract of syzygium cumini seed on streptozotocin induced diabetes in Rats. Int J Chem & Life Sci 2014; 3(2): 1285-88.
- The staining capability of Syzygium cumini (duhat), Coleus blumei Benth (mayana), Setcreasea pallida (Purple Heart) and Beta vulgaris Linn. (red beets) on Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum and Rhizopus oryzae / Mark Kevin T. Banaag, Michael Darelle E. Corpuz, Karla I. Medalla, Cristina E. Milla, Mayriel A. Narag, Ma. Katrin A. Nual, Charlene G. Sacedon / College of Medical Laboratory Science - Our Lady of Fatima University.
- Ramos IL and Bandiola TMB: Phytochemicals screening of Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) leaf extracts using different solvents of extraction. Scholars Research Library: Der Pharmacia Lettre 2017; 9(2): 74-78.
- Eshwarappa RSB, Iyer RS, Subbaramaiah SR, Austin RS and Dhananjaya BL: Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts. BioImpacts 2014; 4(2): 101-07.
- Pradhan M: Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Novel Delivery Applications of Syzygium cumini (L.). IJPPR Human, 2016; 7(1): 659-75.
- Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-hyperlipemia Effects of Syzygium cumini Seed in Alloxan Induced Diabetes mellitus in Swiss Albino Mice (Mus musculus) / Mohd. Sufiyan Siddiqui, Bhaskar Sharma and Gurudayal Ram / Med Aromat Plants 3:166. / doi:10.4172/2167-0412.1000166.
- Maiti S, Bera TK, Chatterjee K and Ghosh D: A study of the effect of mother tincture of Syzygium jambolanum on metabolic disorders of Streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat. Indian J Res Homoeopat 2014; 8: 129-35.
- Margaret E, Shailaja AM and Rao VV: Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity in Different Parts of Syzygium cumini (Linn.). Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 2015; 4(9): 372-79.
- Kumari B, Sharma V and Yadav S: The therapeutic potential of Syzygium cumini seeds in diabetes mellitus. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2017; 5(1): 212-18.
- Karthie K: Identification of a-amylase inhibitors from Syzygium cumini Seeds. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 2008; 46: 677-80.
- Benevides ROA, Vale CC, Fontelles JLL, França LM, Teófilo TS, Silva SN, Paes AMA and Gaspar RS: Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels improves metabolic and ovarian parameters in female obese rats with malfunctioning hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis / / Journal of Ovarian Research 2019; 12(13): https://doi.org/10.1186/s13048-019-0490-8.
- Rafaella Moraes Rego and de Sousa Coelho: Protective Effects of a Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Leaf on Oxidative Stress-Induced Diabetic Rats / Vinicyus Teles Chagas, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Volume 2018, Article ID 5386079 /https://doi.org/10/1155/2018/5386079.
- Mitra P, Mitra PK and Ghosh T Effect of Season on UV absorbing property of Syzygium cumini Leaves. Global Journal of Pharmacist & Pharmaceutical Sciences 2018; 6(3): 555-678.
- Singh N and Gupta M: Effects of ethanolic extract of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) seed powder on pancreatic islets of alloxan diabetic rats. Ind J of Exp Bio 2007; 45: 861-67.
- Ruan ZP, Zhang LL and Yi Ming Lin YM: Evaluation of the Antioxidant Actifity of Syzygium cumini Molecules 2008, 13(10): 2545-56.
- Sharma Y and Mehrotra A: A study of antibacterial, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effect of stem of Syzygium cumini. International Journal of Green Pharmacy 2017; 11(4): 236-43.
- Parmar J, Sharma P, Verma P, Sharma P and Goyal PK: Elimination of deleterious effects of DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice by Syzygium cumini seed extract. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2011; 10(3): 289-297
- Modi DC, Rachh PR, Nayak BS, Shah BN, Modi KP and Patel NM: Anti-hyperlipidemic acitivity of Syzygium cumini Seed extract on high cholesterol fed diet rats. Int J Ph Sci 2009; 1(2): 330-32.
- Ribeiro RM, Campos MB and Maia JDSP: Extract and chloroform fraction from Syzygium cumini leaves with vasorelaxant effect mediated by inhibition of calcium channels. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2018; 12(12): 151-58.
- Patil P, Magar K, Bansode T, Gupta A, Chaphalkar S, Patil A and Sherkhane A: Exploring Anti-Inflammatory Potential in Leaves of Jamun (Syzygium cumini). IJSRST 2018; 5(2): 90-96.
- Barbhuiya AM and Godiya R: Thrombolytic activity of Syzygium cumini seed extract: an in-vitro International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 2019; 9(3): 204-08.
How to cite this article:
Kumar S and Singh B: Syzygium cumini (Jamun) its medicinal uses. Int J Pharmacognosy 2021; 8(9): 361-72. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.8(9).361-72.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
Subodh Kumar * and Bachchu Singh
Department of Ilmul Advia, Department of Ilaj bit Tadabeer, State Takmeelut-Tib College, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
25 June 2021
16 September 2021
19 September 2021
30 September 2021