PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON ROOTS OF TRIANTHEMA DECANDRA LINN., AIZOACEAEHTML Full Text
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES ON ROOTS OF TRIANTHEMA DECANDRA LINN. AIZOACEAE
Veeresh * 1, Pramod Kumar 2 and V Rama Mohan Gupta 3
Department of Pharmacognosy Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Mahabubnagar - 509001, Telangana, India.
Department of Pharmacognosy 2, V. L. College of Pharmacy, Raichur - 584103, Karnataka. India.
Department of Pharmaceutics 3, Pulla Reddy Institute of Pharmacy, Annaram (V), Hyderabad - 500028, Telangana, India.
ABSTRACT: Trianthema decandra Linn., belongs to family Aizoaceae, commonly known as “Punarnavi” in Sanskrit, “Gadabandi” in Hindi, and “Vellai sharuni” in Tamil. This plant is globally distributed tropical and subtropical regions. In India, it grows in dry-soil lands. It has been known since ancient times for curative properties and has been utilized for treatment of various ailments such as burns and wounds. The roots are aperients and said to be useful in hepatitis, asthma, and suppression of the menses. A decoction of the root-bark is given as an aperients. The juice of the leaves dropped into the nostrils relieves one-sided headache. 1 In the present investigation, the detailed Pharmacognostic study of Trianthema decandra root is carried out to lay down the standards, which could be useful in future Forensic identification of unknown plant material. Results: The study includes macroscopic, microscopic, preliminary phytochemical screening and physicochemical evaluation. The objective this was to characterize the unknown plant material. Conclusion: In recent years there has been a rapid increase in the standardization of selected medicinal plant of potential therapeutic significance. Despite the modern techniques, identification of plant drug by Pharmacognostic study is more reliable.
Trianthema decandra root, Pharmacognostic study, Phytochemical screening, Standardization
INTRODUCTION: Trianthema decandra Linn. commonly known as Gadabani and vellai sharuni, belonging to family Aizoaceae is considered as a weed herb plant small evergreen tree found in tropical and sub-tropical parts of India. 2 Stems are elongate, prostrate, not much branched, angular striate, and glabrous.
Leaves subfleshy, 2-3.8 by 0.6- 1.6 cm, the opposite pairs somewhat unequal, elliptic-oblong, rounded and usually apires late at the apex; petioles 6-13 mm. long puberulous much dilated and amplexicaul at the base, but not enclosing the flowers.
Flowers in dense axillary subumellated clusters; peduncles and pedicels very short, bracteoles thinly membranous. Calyx 4 mm. long, tube very short, lobes much longer than the tube, oblong, obtuse, with scarinum margins and with a distinct long apiculation at the back below the apex. Stamens 10. Styles 2.
Capsules not enclosed in the tube of the calyx, 4-seeded, the cap very truncate, 3 mm long, solid, subcylindric with a narrow acute rim round its base, carrying away 2 seeds. Sedds orbicular-reniform, striate, black 3.
In the traditional Indian system of medicine, the Ayurveda and various folk system of medicine, Trianthema decandra possess several medicinal properties such as toothache, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and other skin disorders 4 etc. Chemical studies have shown that, the presence of Carbohydrates, Alkaloids, Steroids, Tannins, Fats, Oils and Saponins 5.
The current article describes some pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemical characteristics studied. The primary objective of this study is to supplement valuable information with regards to its identification, Characterization, and standardization of plant Trianthema decandra Linn.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Collection of Sample: The fresh plant parts of Trianthema decandra was collected and authenticated by Dr. K. Madhava Shatty, Assitant Professor, Dept. of Botany, S. V. University, Tirupathi, A. P. The plant herbarium was prepared (PRIP-01/13) and deposited in the Department of Pharmacognosy, Pulla Reddy Institute of Pharmacy for further reference. The fresh root parts were used for the study of macroscopical and microscopical characters; whereas the dried root powder was used for determination of powder microscopy and phytochemical analysis.
Macroscopic Description: The roots of Trianthema decandra Linn. was subjected to macroscopic studies which comprised of organoleptic characteristics viz. color, odor, appearance, taste, shape, texture, fracture, etc. of the drug. These parameters are considered as quite useful in quality control of the crude drug and were evaluated as per standard WHO guidelines 6, 7, 8.
Microscopic Characteristics 9, 10: Fresh roots of Trianthema decandra were used for this purpose. Photographs of different magnifications were taken with Nikon Labphot 2 Microscopic Unit. For normal observation bright field was used. For study crystals, starch grains and lignified cells, polarized light was employed. The scale-bars indicate magnification of the figures. Descriptive terms of the anatomical features are as given in the Standard books (Easu, 1964).
Determination of Powder Characteristics: 11, 12
Powder Microscopy: Shade-dried roots were powdered with the help of an electric grinder till a fine powder was obtained. This fine powder of root was subjected to powder microscopy, as per standard procedures mentioned. Powder of root is taken in a watch glass. Equal quantities of phloroglucinol and hydrochloric acid were taken in the watch glass. The slide was prepared with the help of a brush. Focused under a microscope.
Phytochemical Investigations: 13, 14, 15 The qualitative chemical tests carried out for the identification of the different phytoconstituents present in the powdered crude drug by using methods of Kokate (1996) and Khandelwal (2005).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
Trianthema decandra is a prostrate weed with branches up to 2 m long, distributed in the tropical & sub-tropical regions of the world. The macromorphological evolution of Roots showed thin, slender, tapering, and tortuous, with lateral branching fibrous root, 4-12 cm in length; 0.2-1.8 cm in diameter, light yellow externally, creamish white internally, fractures fibrous. Odour is strong & characteristic, and the taste is bitter & disagreeable.
Determination of Powder Characteristics:
Powder Microscopy: The microscopic examination of the powder shows fragments of the fibrous layer, Root hairs, Epidermal cells, Sclerenchyma, Xylem vessels, cortex, Parenchymatous mass, Calcium oxalate crystals, Phloem fibers, and other cell contents Fig. 9.
FIG. 8: POWDER MICROSCOPY
Physicochemical Evaluation: The results of the physicochemical constants of raw material lie within the limit which is mentioned in Table 1.
This signifies that the quality and purity of raw material was good enough.
TABLE 1: PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS
|Water Soluble Ash||2.5%|
|Alcohol Soluble Extractive||2.8%|
|Water Soluble Extractive||2.32%|
|Loos on drying||8.25%|
|Crude Fibre Content||0.5%|
Phytochemical Investigations: The crude extracts obtained from the pilot scale extraction were subjected to Phytochemical screening; the results show the presence of Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Steroids, Saponins, etc. Table 2.
TABLE 2: PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF TRIANTHEMA DECANDRA LINN.
|6||Fats and oils||+||+||+||+||+||-|
Fluorescence Analysis: The results of fluorescence analysis were expressed in Table 3. Fluorescence study is an essential parameter for the first line standardization of crude drug. In fluorescence, the fluorescent light is always of greater wavelength than the exciting light. Light rich in short wavelength is very active in producing fluorescence, and for this reason, UV light produces fluorescence in many substances which do not contain visible fluorescence in daylight.
TABLE 3: UV FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS
|Pet. Ether||Green||Golden green||Brown|
|Acetone||Dark Green||Light Brown||Dark Browns|
|Methanol||Light brown||Green||Dark green|
|Ethanol||Light brown||Green||Dark green|
|Aqueous||Brown||Light green||Light brown|
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors are thankful to the Dr. P. Balraj garu, Chairman and Ms. P Ushasree, Director of Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Mahabubnagar for providing necessary facilities to carry out the research work.
The authors are also thankful to Dr. K Madhava Chetty, Asst. Professor, Department of Botany, Sri Venkateshwara University, Tirupati-Andhra Pradesh for identifying and authentication of the plant Trianthema decandra Linn.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Veeresh, Kumar P and Gupta VRM: Pharmacognostic studies on roots of Trianthema decandra linn., Aizoaceae. Int J Pharmacognosy 2016; 3(2): 103-08. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.3(2).103-08.
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Veeresh *, P. Kumar and V. R. M. Gupta
Depertment of Pharmacognosy Smt. Sarojini Ramulamma College of Pharmacy, Mahabubnagar, India.
16 December 2015
20 January 2016
26 January 2016
29 February 2016