MEDICINAL POTENTIAL OF PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA (LINN.) FRUITS EXTRACTS: BIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIESAbstract
The objective of the present study was to investigate the scientific basis of the traditional use of the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica (Linn.). The selected pharmacological investigations are antimicrobial screening, analgesic activity, antidiarrheal activity screening and the brine shrimp lethality test for cytotoxic activity. Phytochemical analysis of ethanolic fruits extracts Phyllanthus emblica (Linn.) showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannin, steroids, reducing sugar and gum. The fruit extract produced 19.07% and 38.67% protection or writhing inhibition at the oral dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg-body weights respectively. From the observations, it is obvious that the ethanol extract of the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica (Linn.) has analgesic activity. The ethanolic fruit extract of Phyllanthus emblica (Linn.) significantly inhibited ear edema formation in xylene-induced ear edema model mice. This inhibition can be considered as direct evidence that is supporting the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Phyllanthus emblica (Linn.) The ethanolic fruit extract of Phyllanthus emblica (Linn.) performing as a remedy for different bacterial diseases is supported by the antibacterial screening tests. During the antidiarrheal activity screening at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight, the extract of Phyllanthus emblica (Linn.) compared to the control group, offered about 0.5389 of the mean latent period for the diarrheal episode to ensure and the result was significant (P<0.2). The mean numbers of stool at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th hour of the study were 8.2, 9.6, 7.8 and 4.4 respectively. Phyllanthus emblica (Linn.) showed moderate antidiarrheal activity in castor oil induced test in mice and caused an increase in the latent period, i.e., delayed the onset of a diarrheal episode and decreased the frequency of defecation. The decreased frequency of defecation and increase mean latent period of test group than the control group and comparison with positive control group can claim that Phyllanthus emblica (Linn.) might possess antidiarrheal activity. A t-test of these responses showed that the result is significant throughout the observation period. The ethanolic fruit’s extract have cytotoxic activity, and test sample showed a different mortality rate at different concentrations. The LC50 values were found to be 60µg/ml for the crude extract. The 90% mortality (LC90) values were 100µg/ml respectively. The approximate significance value for Chi-Square Tests (Linear by linear association) is equal to 0.02, and also significance value for Pearson’s R is 0.001 which are significant at 5% level of significant. According to the results of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the ethanolic fruits extract of Phyllanthus emblica (Linn.) has significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal and cytotoxic effects that support to the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of related diseases. This study also suggests for the further detail investigation of mechanisms of the pharmacological effects and also to isolate the active compound(s) responsible for those properties.
S. M. M. Hossen *, M. Uddin and M. R. Sarkar
Department of Pharmacy, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
19 March 2014
22 April 2014
28 April 2014
01 May 2014