ETHANOMEDICINAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF OCIMUM TENUIFLORUM LINN.HTML Full Text
ETHANOMEDICINAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF OCIMUM TENUIFLORUM LINN.
U. K. Ilyas 1, Deepshikha P. Katare 2 and Vidhu Aeri * 1
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 1, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi - 110062, Delhi, India.
Proteomic and Translational Research Lab 2, Centre for Medical Biotechnology, Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida - 201313, Uttar Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. commonly known as holy basil, tulsi is an aromatic perennial plant in the family Lamiaceae. It is native to the Indian subcontinent and cultivated plant throughout the Southeast Asian tropics, where the leaves, seeds ad stem of tulsi are used for valuable source of culinary and traditional medicinal uses. Indian material medica describes the use of the plants in a variety of ailments such as immunostimulatory effect, gastric antiulcer activity, diabetics mellitus, hyperlipidemia, wound healing effects, protective effect, chemopreventive activity, and blood pressure, etc. The present review aims to summarize up to date information on the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological activity. Until now, highly complex natural molecules have identified including fixed oils, essential oils, triterpenes, flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, polysaccharides, phenolic glycoside, lignans, and norlignans. In addition to solvent extracts, these individual active compounds have been suggested for ethano-pharmacological activities. Although the results are promising in-vitro and in-vivo preclinical studies, clinical studies are insufficient; therefore, further investigation of each active compound need to be done to validate its therapeutic effects and to ensure its toxicity, safety, and efficacy.
Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn., Phytochemistry, Bioactivity, Polyphenols, Neolignan
INTRODUCTION: Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Sanskrit: Tulasi; Family: Lamiaceae), popularly called holy basil or Ocimum teinufolium is widely distributed almost covering entire India. Many therapeutic activities have been attributed to the Tulsi plant, not only in Ayurveda and Siddha but also in Unani, Greek, and Roman System of Medicine for various ailments.
Herbal extracts are included in Ayurvedic remedies for the common cold, stomach disorders, headache, and heart disease, inflammation, malaria, and diverse forms of poisoning.
It is an erect, much divided subordinate shrub, 34-62 cm height, with simple opposite green or purple leaves; leaf: dark green to green in color, opposite arrangement, stipule, absent, petiole and are ovate, up to 5 cm long, usually somewhat toothed; margin: serrated, fluorescence: raceme type, floral bracts: caudiform in shape, flowers: vertical, 5-7 mm in length, calyx; greenish in colour, 5 in number, corolla; bilabiate in shape and covered with scattered hair, white petals, stamen: 4, filament length is 1 mm, filament color is white; ovary; absent, style: single style, color is white, fruit: none seed; plant is prolific producer of seed; seed is very small, white in color, stem is covered with minute hairs Fig. 1.
Phytochemical Review: Several nutrients and bioactive molecules have been found in O. sanctum. The quantity of these phytoconstituents depends on the nature of soil, climate, processing, harvesting and storage techniques. The various chemical constituents reported in O. sanctum are listed in Table 1.
FIG. 1: OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN.
TABLE 1: THE REPORTED CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF O. SANCTUM LINN.
|Plant Part||Category of Constituents||Name of the
|Ocimumosides A and B, ocimarin and apigenin,apigenin-7-o-β-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin -7-O-β-D-glucuronic acid, luteolin, luteolin- 7-O-β-D-glucuronic acid,||1|
|Seed||Fixed oil||palmitic acid,stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic||2|
|Leaves||Polysaccharide||Mucopolysaccharide, hyaluronic acid||3|
|Leaves||Volatile oil||Eugenol, methyl eugenol and caryophyllene||4|
|Seed||Phenolic acid||Rosmarinic acid 6||5|
|Leaves||Neolignan||-allyl-3’,8-dimethoxy-flavan-3,4’-diol, 6-allyl-3-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-3’, 8-dimethoxyflavan-4’-ol, 5-allyl-3-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxymethyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, 2-bis (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenyl)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran, 2-bis (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-methoxypropane, 2-bis (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-mehoxypropane, 11-(4-hydroxy-3-methoyphenyl)-1,2,3tris (-allyl-2-methxyphenoxy) propane, 1-allyl-4-(5-allyl-2-hydrxy-3-methoxyphenoxy)-3-(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy)-5-methoxybenene, 3-(5-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-metoxyphenyl)-1-(4-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenxy)-prop-1-ene||6|
|Leaves / aerial parts||Phenolic compounds||Aesculectin –glucuronide, triacontanol ferulate, vicenin-2-, circineol, gallic acid, galuteolin, isorientin, isovitexin, circineol, luteolin, molludistin, orientin, procatechuic acid, stigmasterol, ursolic acid, vallinin, viceni,vitexin, vallinin acid||7, 8, 9|
|Vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, calcium,
phosphorus, chromium, copper, carotene, zinc,
|Leaves||Essential oil||Aromadendrene oxide, borneol, caryophyllene oxide, bornyl acetate, benzaldehyde, veridifloro, cubenol, cardinene, d-limonene, eicosane, eucalyptol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, farnesense, farnesol, furaldehyde, germacrene, heptanol, humulene, limonene, cis-α-Terpineol, n-butyl benzoate, ocimene, oleic acid, sabinene, selinene, α-camphene, α-pinene, camphor, α-myrcene, β-pinene, α-Thujene, β-Guaiene, β-gurjunene, methyl chavicol, linalool, circimaritin, phytol, isothymusin, apigenin, rosameric acid, octane, cadinene, borneol||8, 11, 12|
|Seeds||Fixed oil||Stearic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitric acid, linolenic acid, sitosterol, linodilinolin, dilinoleno-linolins, hexoureic acid||7, 13|
Ethanopharmacological Review: As per the available literature, the plant is found to be hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-ulcer and as an antibacterial agent. Some of the reported pharmacological activities of O. sanctum are mentioned with scientific evidence in Table 2.
TABLE 2: THE REPORTED PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LINN.
|Plant Part||Type of Extract||Model of Study||Activity||References|
|Leaves||Aqueous, alcoholic||Toxicity studies||Wound healing, antioxidant||17|
|Seed||P. ether||Cell line||Immunomodulatory||23|
|Leaves, stem, root, flower||Ethanolic||In-vitro||Antiplasmodial activity||25|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In-vitro||Human monocyte (THP-1) cell activation||26|
|Whole plant||Methanolic||In-vitro||Influenza virus (H1N1)||27|
|Seed||Essential oil||In-vitro||Induce apoptosis in Candida albicans||28|
|Whole plant||Essential oil||Ex-vivo and in- vivo||Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory||30|
|Whole plant||Essential oil||In-vitro||Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity||31|
|Whole plant||Essential oil & Ethanolic||In-vivo||Anti-inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects||32|
|Whole plant||Hydroalcoholic||In-vivo||Neuroprotective activity||33|
|Whole plant||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Anti-aging, anti-stress and ROS scavenging activity||34|
|Leaf||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Human pancreatic cancer cell||37|
|Whole plant||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Mutagenic potential||38|
|Whole plant||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Stress-induced anxiety||39|
|Whole plants||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Stress-induced central monoaminergic and oxidative changes in rats||40|
|Whole plants||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Fatigue stress||41|
|Whole||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion||43|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Lipid lowering and antioxidant activity||46|
|Leaf||Alcoholic and aqueous||In-vivo||Cognitive disorders||49|
|Aerial parts||Hydroalcoholic extracts||In-vivo||Anti-diabetic activity||50|
|Whole plant||Aqueous||In-vivo||Anti-diabetic activity||51|
|Leaves||Hydroalcoholic||In vivo||Antioxidant activity||15|
|Leaf||Alcoholic||In vivo||Effect on sperm count and reproductive hormones||54|
|Leaves||Hydroalcoholic||In-vivo||Antimelanoma and radioprotective activity||55|
|Seed||Fixed oil||In-vivo||Anti-hyperlipidemic and cardioprotective activity||56|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Anxiety and depression||57|
|Leaves||Aqueous||In-vivo||Anxiety and depression||58|
|Leaves||Powder||In-vivo||Reversal of cadmium-induced oxidative stress||59|
|Leaf||Essential oil||Ex-vivo||Antifungal activity||28|
|Leaves||Aqueous||Ex-vivo||Wound healing activity||60|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Effect on homocysteine levels and lipid profile||61|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Effect on macrophage function and oxidative stress||62|
|Leaves||Essential oil||Ex-vivo||Anti-candidal activity||63|
|Leaves||Essential oil||In-vivo||Respiratory tract infection||64|
|Leaves||Aqueous||In-vivo||H2O2 induced cytotoxicity changes in human lens epithelial cells||66|
|Leaves||Ethyl acetate||In-vivo||Leishmanicidal activity||6|
|Seed||Essential oil||In-vivo||Immune response||67|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Arsenic induced toxicity||68|
|Leaves||Aqueous||In vivo||Humoral immune response||71|
|Leaves||Alcoholic||In vivo||Modulatory activity||72|
|Leaves||Water or hydroalcoholic||In-vivo||Radioprotective activity||73|
|Leaves||Alcoholic||In-vivo||Regulation of thyroid function||76|
|Leaves||Alcoholic||In-vitro||Radioprotective, anticarcinogenic and antioxidant properties||78|
|Whole||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Radiation protection of human lymphocyte chromosomes||79|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In vivo||Anti-diabetic activity||82|
|Leaves||Aqueous||In vivo||Anti-diabetic activity||20|
|Leaves||Fixed oils||In-vivo||Hypertensive activity||83|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In vivo||Acute noise stress||19|
|leaves||Water and aqueous||In-vivo and
|Inhibition of lipid peroxidation||87
|Leaves||Methanolic||In-vivo||Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity||11|
|Whole||Ethanolic||Ex-vivo||Nitric oxide scavenging activity||88|
|Leaves, stem||Ethanolic, chloroform||In-vivo||Anticonvulsant activity||89|
|Leaves||Ethanolic extract||In-vivo||Hepatoprotective activity||90|
|Whole||Ethanolic||In-vitro||Lens aldose reductase inhibitor||91|
|Whole||Ethanolic||In-vitro||Modulates selenite exposed management of rat lens opacification and cataractogenic changes and||92|
|Leaves||Aqueous||In-vivo||Protective effect against Cr/Hg induced genetic damage||94|
|Seed||Oils||In-vivo||Anti-diabetic, anti-hypercholesterolemia and antioxidant effect||95|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In-vivo||stimulate insulin from clonal pancreatic beta cells and perfused pancreas isolated islets||96|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Hypoglycemic and antioxidant||97|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Anti-ulcerogenic and ulcer-healing properties||21|
|Leaves||Aqueous||In-vivo||Ameliorating 131 iodine-induced damage to the salivary glands||93|
|Leaves||Methanolic||In-vivo||Gastric mucosal offensive and defensive factors||99|
|Leaves||Ethanolic||In-vivo||Inhibit DMBA induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress||102|
|Leaves||Aqueous||In-vivo||Pretension of insulin resistances||107|
|Whole||Aqueous||In-vivo||Wound healing activity||3|
|Whole||Hydroalcoholic||In-vivo||Cardiac changes in rats||18|
CONCLUSION: Holy basil has been widely used for curing various ailments due to great pharmacological and phytochemical moieties, therefore, a review of the plant has been summarized up-to-date information on the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological activity.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Ilyas UK, Katare DP and Aeri V: Ethanomedicinal, phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. Int J Pharmacognosy 2019; 6(7): 228-36. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.6(7).228-36.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
U. K. Ilyas, D. P. Katare and V. Aeri *
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, Delhi, India.
28 June 2019
18 July 2019
29 July 2019
31 July 2019