DALBERGIA SISSOO ROXB: MONOGRAPHHTML Full Text
DALBERGIA SISSOO ROXB: MONOGRAPH
Sabira Sultana *1, Hafiz Mohammad Asif 2, Naveed Akhtar 1 and Naheed Akhtar 2
University College of Conventional Medicine 1, Faculty of Pharmacy & Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
Department of Eastern Medicine and Surgery 2, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, The University of Poonch, Rawalakot, AJ & K, Pakistan.
ABSTRACT: In traditional medicinal trees, Dalbergia sissoo is a popular species around the world. It has been used for the therapeutic purpose from thousands of years, and now there is a growing demand for plant-based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Dalbergia sissoo is a widely growing plant which is used traditionally as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic and as an antimicrobial agent. Several chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from different parts of the plant belonging to the category of alkaloids, glycosides, flavanols, tannins, saponins, sterols and terpenoids. Compounds isolated from Dalbergia sissoo like an isoflavone, biochanin is a potent chemotherapeutic cancer preventive agent with a distinct estrogenic activity. D. sissoo possesses several pharmacological activities; however, it is essential that more clinical and pharmacological studies should be conducted to investigate the unexploited potential of this plant. A review of plant description, phytochemical constituents present, traditional uses and pharmacological activities of Dalbergia sissoo are given in the present article.
Dalbergia sissoo, Traditional uses, Phytoconstituents, Pharmacological activities
INTRODUCTION: Dalbergia sissoo, commonly known as Indian Rosewood, is a deciduous tree, also known as sisu, Sheesham, tahli and Tali. It is native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southern Iran. Dalbergia sissoo is the state tree of Punjab state (India) and the provincial tree of Punjab province (Pakistan). It is found growing along river banks below 900 meters (3,000 ft) elevation but can range naturally up to 1,300 m (4,300 ft).
It can withstand average annual rainfall up to 2,000 millimeters (79 in) and droughts of 3-4 months. It prefers soils from pure sand and gravel to rich alluvium of river banks. Shisham can grow in slightly saline soils. Seedlings are intolerant of shade 1.
Taxonomical Classification: 2
Species: D. sissoo
Binomial Name: Dalbergia sissoo DC.
Synonyms: Amerimnon sissoo (Roxb.) Kuntze, Coroya Pierre, Amerimnon P. Browne, Ecastaphyllum P. Browne, Miscolobium Vogel, Triptolemea Mart. 3.
Common Names: Sanskrit (Shinshapa, aguru), English (Indian Rosewood, Bombay Blackwood), Hindi (Shisham, sissu, sisam), Tamil (Sisso, gette), Bengali (Shishu), French (Ébénier juane), Arabic (Arabic) 3.
Botanical Description: Dalbergia sissoo is a medium to large size deciduous tree. It is of about 25 meters high with grey-yellow trunk, longitudinal crack, and downcast twig. Leaves are leathery, pinnately compound, alternate leaflets, petiolated leaf stalk, measures about 15 cm long, each leaflet most comprehensive at the base, to 6 cm long with a fine pointed tip. Flowers are whitish to pink, fragrant, nearly sessile, and in dense clusters. Pods are oblong, flat, thin, strap-like 4–8 cm long, 1 cm wide and light brown Fig. 1 and 2. They contain 1–5 flat bean-shaped seeds 8–10 mm long. It has a long taproot and numerous surface roots which produce suckers. Young shoots are downy and drooping; stems have light brown to dark grey bark up to 2.5 cm (0.98 in) thick, shed in narrow strips, large upper branches support a spreading crown Fig. 1 and 2 1.
Geographical Distribution: Dalbergia sissoo is found in tropical to subtropical climates in natural and planted forests, very widely distributed in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Israel, Afghanistan, Persia, Iraq, Kenya, US and Tanzania 4.
Phytochemical Constituents: Isoflavone-O-glycoside, Biochanin A, tectorigenin, 7, 4 dimethyl tectorigenin and 7-O- methyl tectorigenin, Mesoinisitol, 7-O- methyl tectorigenin and 4’-rhamnoglucoside, Isocaviumin, tectorigenin, dalbergin, caviunin and tannins, Dalberginone, Dalbergia, methyl Dalbergia and dalbergichromene, Dalbergin, nordalberginones, dalbergichromene, fixed oil and essential oils. Compounds isolated from Dalbergia sissoo like an isoflavone, biochanin is a potent chemotherapeutic
Cancer preventive agent with a distinct estrogenic activity. Two rare glycosides kaempferol and quercetin rutinosides are also isolated 5, 6.
Traditional Uses: Its leaf juice is used for eye ailments. Wood and bark act as abortifacient, anthelmintic, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, expectorant, and refrigerant also used in anal disorders, blood diseases, burning sensations, dysentery, dyspepsia, leucoderma, skin ailments, blood disorders, burning sensations, eye and nose disorders, scabies, scalding urine, stomach problems, and syphilis, boils, eruptions, leprosy and nausea.
Leaf extract has been used to treat sore throats, heart problems, dysentery, syphilis, and gonorrhea. In India and Nepal, rural people use Dalbergia sissoo leaves to treat animals suffering from non-specific diarrhea. People use twigs of the tree to clean their teeth 7.
Reported Pharmacological Activities:
Anti-Inflammatory Activity: Anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo bark was evaluated. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract at 1000 mg/kg showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity compared to the other groups (300 and 500 mg/kg) throughout the observation period 8.
Anti-Termite Activity: The anti-termite activity of heartwood of Dalbergia sissoo was evaluated. It was concluded that the plant extracts could be used as an alternative for synthetic pesticides for the control of termite in buildings 9.
Anti-Diabetic Potential: Pankaj Singh Niranjan et al., conducted a study in 2010 to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. They concluded that the ethanolic extract of the leaves is 12% more effective in reducing the blood glucose level compared to standard Glibenclamide 10.
Analgesic and Antipyretic Effects: Phytochemical, analgesic and antipyretic activities of ethanol extract of Dalbergia sissoo seeds were evaluated. It was concluded that Dalbergia sissoo seeds extract has moderate analgesic and remarkable antipyretic activities 11.
Anti-Helminthic Potential: The anti-helminthic activity of Dalbergia sissoo was determined. The study showed the potential usefulness of Dalbergia sissoo against helminthic infections 12.
Antioxidant Potential: The stem bark of Dalbergia sissoo was evaluated for its antioxidant potential. Finally results shown, among the different extracts of stem bark of the plant, chloroform extract exhibited marked antioxidant activity, whereas methanolic extract showed moderate activity in different in-vitro anti-oxidant assays 13.
Antimicrobial Property: In a study, a herbal preparation containing Dalbergia sissoo and Datura stramonium was evaluated for its antibacterial potential against pathogenic strains of gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumonia) bacteria. Antibacterial effect was compared to standard antibiotic drugs, i.e. Chloramphenicol (30 mcg), Ampicillin (10 mcg), Nalidixic acid (10 mcg) and Rifampicin (30 mcg). An extract was found to be most active against both gram-positive as well as gram-negative bacteria. A clinical isolate of S. aureus showed higher sensitivity towards both extract than standard strains and inhibited growth on most administrative levels such as inhibition of protein, DNA, RNA, and peptidoglycan synthesis. The results of the study show that the extract of Dalbergia sissoo and Datura stramonium may be used as a potent antiseptic preparation for the prevention and treatment of chronic bacterial infections 14.
Antinociceptive Activity: The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the plant bark of Dalbergia sissoo was evaluated using tail flick method on Wistar rats. Three different dose levels (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose were administered. The antinociceptive extract activities of all doses were compared with that of the standard drug aspirin (300 mg/kg). The results were found to be significant (P<0.01). At the above doses, the extract possesses significant dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. Phyto-chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids. The antinociceptive activity of the bark extract may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as flavonoids 15.
Osteogenic Activity: One new isoflavone glucoside, caviunin 7-O-[β-D- apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside] and a new itaconic derivative, (E)- 4-methoxy- 2- (3,4-dihydroxy benzylidene)-4-oxobutanoic acid along with series of isoflavones and flavonols with their glucosides, and a lignan glucoside was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo leaves and were assessed for osteogenic activity in primary calvarial osteoblast cultures. The result showed that compounds exhibited significant osteogenic activity 16.
CONCLUSION: In recent years, medicinal plant studies have received much attention as this brings to light the numerous little known and unknown medicinal virtues especially of plant origin which needs evaluation on modern scientific lines such as phytochemical analysis, pharmacological screening and clinical trials.
Dalbergia sissoo possesses a variety of pharmacological activities as discussed in the present review article. However, it is essential that more clinical and pharmacological studies should be conducted to investigate the unexploited potential of this plant.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: All authors have contributed significantly, and that all authors agree with the content of the manuscript.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Sultana S, Asif HM, Naveed Akhtar N and Akhtar N: Dalbergia sissoo Roxb: monograph. Int J Pharmacognosy 2015; 2(9): 440-43. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.2(9).440-43.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
S. Sultana *, H. M. Asif, N. Akhtar and N. Akhtar
University College of Conventional Medicine, Faculty of Pharmacy & Alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan.
03 August 2015
01 September 2015
11 September 2015
30 September 2015