COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALL PARTS OF C. PANICULATUS WILDHTML Full Text
COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF ALL PARTS OF C. PANICULATUS WILD
Kamalinee A. Deodhar * 1 and Nanda W. Shinde 2
K. L. E. Society’s Science and Commerce College 1, Kalamboli, Sector 1, Navi Mumbai - 410218, Maharashtra, India.
K. V. Pendharkar College of Arts, Science & Commerce 2, MIDC, Dombivali - 421203, Maharashtra, India.
ABSTRACT: Herbal drugs play an important role in the health care programme especially in developing countries. Ancient Indian literature incorporates a remarkably broad definition of medicinal plants and considers “all” plant parts to be potential sources of medicinal substances. C. paniculatus is one of the Indian medicinal plants having a remarkable reputation as a factor of health care among the indigenous medicinal practitioner. There are many species of C. paniculatus which are medicinally important, but having very similar characters which makes confusion among the people about its authentification. As pharmacognosy is the 1st step in proving medicinal status as the crude drug of plant parts used in the health care system, the preliminary phytochemical studies of seeds, leaves, stem, and root of C. paniculatus were carried out.
Celastrus paniculatus, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemical analysis, Aqueous extracts
INTRODUCTION: Herbal drugs play an important role in the health care programme especially in developing countries. Ancient Indian literature incorporates a remarkably broad definition of medicinal plants and considers “all” plant parts to be potential sources of medicinal substances 1. C. paniculatus is one of the Indian medicinal plants having a remarkable reputation as a factor of health care among the indigenous medicinal practitioner. In India, 6 species of Celastrus viz. C. hindsii, C. monospermus, C. stylosus, C. hookeri, C. monospermoids including C. paniculatus are found 2. All the species are memory enhancers and have been used as natural insecticides for a long time.
Local healers use different species to treat different ailments. All parts of C. paniculatus are gaining popularity in the primary health care system, and local values are using them regularly. The authentic identification of these parts is a problem for them because other species of Celastrus are also being used as herbal medicines and there is little morphological difference in members of these species. As pharmacognosy is the 1st step in proving medicinal status as the crude drug of plant parts used in the health care system, the pharmacognostic studies of seeds, leaves, stem, and root of C. paniculatus were carried out.
As medicinal property in a plant part is due to the presence of secondary metabolites like alkaloids or tannins or phenolics or flavonoids as active constituents, the preliminary phytochemical assay was done of each part.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Collection and Authentication: The plant material of C. paniculatus was collected from the forest areas of 3 different localities, i.e. Satara, Murbad and Kokan in August to October when it is flowering and fruiting. Care was taken to select healthy, full-grown plants and normal organs. The plant was authenticated from Blatter Herbarium, Department of Botany, St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai. (Specimen Accession No.1235 of H. Satapau). The voucher specimen of the plant is deposited at Research laboratory, Dept. of Botany, K. V. Pendharkar College, Dombivli (E) for further reference.
FIG. 1: CELASTRUS PANICULATUS INFLORESCENCE AND FRUITS
Extraction of Active Constituents: About 10 gms of the powdered drug of all the parts was extracted with water, Soxhlet apparatus. The extraction was carried out until the extractive became colorless. The excess solvent was removed from extractive by evaporation over boiling water bath. The dried extract was kept in a desiccator and used for identification of active constituents present.
Phytochemical Analysis: The following qualitative chemical tests for identifying various constituents were carried out on aqueous extracts prepared from all parts of C. paniculatus 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
For Alkaloids: Mayer’s reagent, Dragandroff’s reagent, Wagner’s reagent, Hager’s reagent test.
For Carbohydrates: Molisch’s test, Benedict’s test, Barfoed’s test, Fehling’s solution test.
For Glycosides: Legal test, H2SO4 test, Borntrager’s test, Killer-Killani test.
For Proteins and Amino Acids: Millon’s reagent, Ninhydrin reagent test, Biuret test.
For Sterols and Triterpenoids: Libermann test, Salkowski test, Noller test.
For Phenolic Compounds: FeCl3 test, Zinc-Hydrochloride reduction test.
For Flavonoids: Shinoda test, Zinc-Hydrochloride test, alkaline reagent test.
For Tannins: FeCl3 test, Vanillin-Hydrochloride test, alkaline reagent test, Bromine water test.
For Saponins: Froth forming test.
For Fixed Oils and Fats: Spot test
For Mucilage and gums: Ruthenium red test and Water absorption test.
For Anthraquinone: Benzene and 1% NH4 solution test.
Observation: Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of all the powders answered positively only for alkaloids, Sterols & triterpenoids and phenolic compounds, saponins while proteins & amino acids, mucilage and gums, anthraquinone showed absence in aqueous extract. Aqueous extract, in addition, answered positively for the presence of flavonoids in all extracts expect aqueous extract of the leaf.
Similarly, tannins are observed only in two aqueous extracts namely seed and stem powder extract. The major variation is observed in carbohydrate tests performed for all aqueous extracts.
TABLE 1: PHYTOCHEMICAL TEST OBSERVATION
|S. no.||Chemical Constituents and Test||Expected Observation||Aqueous extract of|
|Extract + Mayer’s reagent||White Creamish ppt.||++||++||++||++|
|Extract + Dragandroff’s reagent||Orange colour||++||++||++||++|
|Extract + Wagner’s reagent||Brown red ppt.||++||++||++||++|
|Extract + Hager’s reagent||Yellow ppt.||++||++||++||++|
|Extract + Molisch’s reagent||Purple-Violet||++||++||++||++|
|Extract + Benedict’s reagent||Reddish-brown ppt.||---||---||---||++|
|Extract + Barfoed’s reagent||Red colour||++||++||++||++|
|Extract + Fehling’s solution||Brick red ppt.||++||++||---||++|
|Extract +Anthrone + H2SO4 + heating||Purple-green colour||---||---||---||---|
|Extract + Legal test||Pink to red||---||---||---||---|
|Extract + Borntrager’s test||Pink colour||---||---||---||---|
|Extract + Killer- Killani test||Greenish blue colour||---||++||---||++|
|4||Protein & Amino acids|
|Extract + Millon’s reagent||White ppt.||---||---||---||---|
|Extract + Ninhydrin reagent||Blue-violet colour||---||---||---||---|
|Extract + Biuret test||Violet colour||---||---||---||---|
|5||Sterols and triterpenoids|
|Extract + Libermann test||Bluish green||++||++||++||++|
|Extract + Salkowski test||Red fluorescent||++||++||++||++|
|Extract + Noller’s test||Pink colour||++||++||++||++|
|Extract + FeCl3 test||Blue-green colour||++||++||++||++|
|Extract + Zinc-HCl reduction test||Yellowish-Orange||++||++||++||++|
|Extract + Shinoda test||Pink scarlet, crimson||++||---||++||++|
|Extract + Zinc-HCl reduction test||Red colour||++||---||++||++|
|Extract + Alkaline reagent||yellow to colourless||++||---||++||++|
|Extract + FeCl3 test||Blue-green ppt.||++||---||++||---|
|Extract + Vanillin- H2SO4||Purple-red colour||++||---||++||---|
|Extract + Alkaline reagent||Yellow to red ppt.||++||---||++||---|
|Extract + Bromine water||Decolourisation of Br2||++||----||++||---|
|Froth forming test||Stable froth||++||++||++||++|
|10||Fixed oils & Fats|
|Spot test||Appearance of stain||++||++||++||++|
|11||Mucilage & Gums|
|Extract + Ruthenium Red||Pink colour||---||---||---||---|
|Extract + Benzene+ 1% NH4||Pink, red or violet colour||---||---||---||---|
CONCLUSION: The phytochemical analysis of aqueous extracts indicates the presence of alkaloids, sterols & triterpenoids and phenolic compounds prominently than other phytochemical components.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Deodhar KA and Shinde NW: Comparative Study of Aqueous Extracts of All Parts of C. Paniculatus Wild. Int J Pharmacognosy 2015; 2(10): 523-26. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.2(10).523-26.
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