COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF LEAVES OF ADHATAODA VASICA AND AILANTHUS EXCELSAHTML Full Text
COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF LEAVES OF ADHATAODA VASICA AND AILANTHUS EXCELSA
U. R. Shah * 1, R. G. Shah 2, N. S. Acharya 3 and S. R. Acharya 3
Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College 1, Vadodara - 390019, Gujarat, India.
Sun Pharmaceutical Advanced Research Center 2, Vadodara - 390020, Gujarat, India.
Institute of Pharmacy 3, Nirma University, Ahmedabad - 382481, Gujarat, India.
ABSTRACT: Adhataoda vasica and Ailanthus excelsa are distributed throughout tropical and subtropical parts of India. Their leaves are used as expectorant and bronchodilator. The present investigation deals with the comparative pharmacognostical study of the leaves of the two species and establishment of its quality parameters. Detailed morphological and qualitative as well as the quantitative microscopic study was carried out. Phytochemical screening of the species followed this. Leaf surface microscopy of Adhataoda vasica shows polygonal thin walled epidermal cells and diacytic stomata whereas Ailanthus excels shows penta and hexagonal epidermal cells and anomocytic stomata. The chief powder characteristics of Adhataoda vasica leaf powder are 2-4 celled blunt covering trichomes, sessile-glandular trichomes, acicular and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals whereas Ailanthus excelsa leaf powder shows multicellular bent thick walled covering trichomes, multicellular head and stalk glandular trichomes, cluster and rosette calcium oxalate crystals. The present work can serve as a useful tool in the identification, authentication, and standardization of the plant material and distinguishing the two species from each other. The present study can be very useful in distinguishing Adhataoda vasica and Ailanthus excelsa, standardizing their formulations as well as serving as a guide for isolating novel phyto-constituents from them.
Adhataoda vasica, Ailanthus excelsa, Pharmacognostic study
INTRODUCTION: Adhatoda vasica Nees (Family - Acanthaceae), commonly known as Vasaka or Ardusi is found commonly in India 1, 2. These species are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids which are responsible for strong anti-oxidant properties that help in the prevention and therapy of various oxidative stress-related diseases.
It has been used for a multitude of disorders including; bronchitis, leprosy, blood disorders, heart troubles, thirst, asthma, fever, vomiting, loss of memory, leucoderma, jaundice, tumors, mouth troubles, sore-eye, fever, and gonorrhea 3, 4, 5.
Ailanthus excelsa Roxb., (Family: Simaroubaceae) is a large, deciduous tree indigenous to central and Southern India and Sri Lanka 6, 7, 8. Traditionally or in Indian system of medicine, A. excelsa Roxb. is used in the treatment of asthma, cough, colic pain, cancer, diabetes and also used as antispasmodic and bronchodilator. It is known as the tree of heaven or tree of Gods, Maharuk in Hindi, Arduso in Gujarati, Mattipongilyam in Malayalam, Perumaruthu in Tamil also used as a substitute of A. vasica 9, 10. In the present investigation, the pharmacognostic study of Adhatoda vasica (leaves) and Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (leaves) was carried out to lay down the standards which could be useful in future experimental studies. The present study deals with the comparative pharmacognostic study of the leaves of the two species. Morphological and anatomical studies of plant parts will enable to identify the crude drug. The information obtained from the preliminary phytochemical screening will be useful in finding out the genuity of the drug. These parameters used as reliable aid for detecting adulteration 11. These simple but reliable standards will be useful to a person in using the drug as a home remedy. Also, the manufacturers can utilize them for identification and selection of the raw material for drug production.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leaves of Adhatoda vasica and Ailanthus excelsa were collected from the campus of Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Vadodara in June 2013. Herbarium and voucher samples of Adhatoda vasica (PPDC/COG/1/2013) and Ailanthus excelsa (PPDC/COG/2/2013) were deposited in the college laboratory. The fresh leaves were compared morphologically and used for the transverse section, surface preparation, and quantitative microscopy 12. The dried leaves were powdered, stored in airtight containers and used for powder study and phytochemical screening. For microscopical studies, phloroglucinol and HCl were used for staining Table 1.
TABLE 1: MICROSCOPICAL COMPARISION BETWEEN ADHATODA VASICA AND AILANTHUS EXCELSA LEAVES
|Parameters||Adhatoda vasica leaf||Ailanthus excelsa leaf|
|Nature of lamina||Dorsiventral||Dorsiventral|
|Transverse Section||Cystolith was observed in cortical parenchyma||Cystolith was absent in cortical parenchyma|
|Palisade||double layers||Single layer|
2-4 celled blunt
Multicellular bent thickly walled
Multicellular head and stalk
|Epidermal cell||Polygonal thin walled||Pentagonal and hexagonal|
Photomicrography of the transverse sections and the powdered drug was performed using a camera. The quantitative microscopic study was performed using camera lucida and stage micrometer scale Table 2. Phytochemical screening of both the species was performed using the appropriate extracts (aqueous and alcoholic) and appropriate chemical tests Table 3.
TABLE 2: QUANTITATIVE MICROSCOPICAL COMPARISION BETWEEN ADHATODA VASICA AND AILANTHUS EXCELSA LEAVES
|A. vasica||A. excelsa|
|Vein islet number||23-25||35-37|
|Vein termination number||35-37||43-45|
TABLE 3: PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ADHATODA VASICA AND AILANTHUS EXCELSA LEAF POWDER
|Phytoconstituents||Adhatoda vasica||Ailanthus excelsa|
|Methanol Extract||Aqueous Extract||Methanol Extract||Aqueous Extract|
|Gum and Mucilage||-ve||-ve||-ve||-ve|
Various chemical tests performed for screening of various phyto-constituents of Adhatoda vasica and A. excelsa leaf powder and shown in Table 3.
RESULTS: The fresh leaves were compared morphologically and shown in Table 4.
TABLE 4: MORPHOLOGICAL COMPARISION BETWEEN ADHATODA VASICA AND AILANTHUS EXCELSA LEAVES
FIG. 1: TRANSVERSE SECTION OF ADHATODA VASICA AND AILANTHUS EXCELSA LEAVES
FIG. 2: SURFACE PREPARATION OF ADHATODA VASICA AND AILANTHUS EXCELSA LEAVES
DISCUSSION: A detailed comparative pharmacognostic study of leaves of Adhatoda vasica and Ailanthus excelsa has been performed. Leaf surface microscopy of Adhataoda vasica shows polygonal thin walled epidermal cells, and diacytic stomata whereas Ailanthus excelsa shows penta and hexagonal epidermal cells and anomocytic stomata. The chief powder characteristics of Adhataoda vasica leaf powder are 2-4 celled blunt covering trichomes, sessile-glandular trichomes, acicular and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals whereas Ailanthus excelsa leaf powder shows multicellular bent thick walled covering trichomes, multicellular head and stalk glandular trichomes, cluster and rosette calcium oxalate crystals. Various quantitative microscopic parameters were also established. Alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, and sterols were detected in both the species, but proteins were detected only in Ailanthus excelsa.
CONCLUSION: The pharmacognostic standards for the leaves of Adhatoda vasica and Ailanthus excelsa are laid down for the first time in this study. Morphological and anatomical studies of plant parts will enable to identify the crude drug. The information obtained from the preliminary phytochemical screening will be useful in finding out the genuity of the drug.
These simple but reliable standards will be useful to a person in using the drug as a home remedy. Also, the manufacturers can utilize them for identification and selection of the raw material for drug production. So further study should be carried out in future to isolate the specific chemical constituents as well as detailed pharmacological activity will be carried out in proper scientific way.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Shah UR, Shah RG, Acharya NS and Acharya SR: Comparative pharmacognostic study of leaves of Adhataoda vasica and Ailanthus excelsa. Int J Pharmacognosy 2014; 1(2): 95-98. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.1(2).95-98.
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U. R. Shah *, R. G. Shah , N. S. Acharya , S. R. Acharya
Pioneer Pharmacy Degree College, Vadodara, Gujarat India
18 November 2013
13 January 2014
26 January 2014
01 February 2014