ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF TRASCHYSPERMUM AMMI LEAVESHTML Full Text
ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF TRASCHYSPERMUM AMMI LEAVES
Safeena Nazeer * 1, Usman Ghani Khan 2 and Safila Naveed 3
Department of Pharmacognosy 1, Clinical Pharmacy and Health Care 2, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry 3, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan.
ABSTRACT: Anxiety is an obnoxious condition of inner disorder, often accompanied by thoughts, somatic complaints, and nervous behavior. Anxiety is initiated by external stimuli. It may be as a consequence of any underline disease condition such as Parkinson's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or diabetes. There are different types of anxiety which are a social anxiety disorder, selective mutism, agoraphobia, specific phobia, panic attack, and separation anxiety disorder. In this study anxiolytic activity of methanolic and ethanolic extract of Leaves of Trachyspermum ammi has been determined. For this purpose methanolic and ethanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi leaves were prepared and evaluate anxiolytic activity in-vivo on mice by using light and dark model of anxiety. Data analysis by using two way ANOVA gives highly significant results, i.e. (P<0.000) for both methanolic and ethanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi leaves.
Anxiety, Trachyspermum ammi, Plant extracts, Light and dark model
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety is an obnoxious condition of inner disorder, often accompanied by thoughts, somatic complaints and nervous behavior 1 when anxiety gets to be distinctly outrageous, it might be accepted as an anxiety disorder, and can fundamentally decrease the personal satisfaction actuating various psychosomatic ailments. Anxiety can be characterized as “a state of strong apprehension, hesitation, and dread that outcome from the desire of an alarming circumstance or scene, much of the time to the degree that hinders in the common physical and psychological functions” 2. The American Association of Psychiatry declares that all types of anxiety disorder contribute to characteristics of fear plus anxiety.
“Fear is the emotional reaction to the perceived or genuine threat, though anxiety is an expectation of future risk” 3. Symptoms of anxiety differ from individuals to individuals since it depends on the type of anxiety disorder except that common symptom of all anxiety disorders are categorized into 2 that is a physical and psychological sensation. In physical sensation patient go through insomnia, nausea, trembling as well as itchy feet and hands, palpitation, sweating or cold on hand or feet, dry mouth, churning in the stomach, shaking, feeling light headache, panic attacks, increase in blood pressure and tension in the muscle.
In psychological anxiety patient go through dread of worst, nervous, restlessness, focus, feeling that people will laugh at you, feeling of discomfort, irritability, feeling like the world is speeding up or slowing down, and on bad experience thinking many times on the situation 4. The exact reason for anxiety is obscure. Anxiety is initiated by external stimuli. It may be as a consequence of any underline disease condition such as Parkinson’s disease 5, rheumatoid arthritis 6, or diabetes. Major depressive disorder 7 and a diminished measure of inhibitory neurotransmitter, i.e. GABA likewise the reason for anxiety disorder 8. One more cause of anxiety is environmental conditions like stress, parenting factor, 9, socioeconomics 10, history of any trauma 11, cultural factor, etc. Chronic use or drug abuse or with drawl of many drugs that includes central nervous stimulant like caffeine, tobacco, sedatives, or alcohol may likewise be the reason for anxiety 10. Stress identified with an individual relationship, worry at workplaces, worry because of fund and demise of a dearest individual or the oxygen insufficiency in conditions, these elements or combination of above causes may add to anxiety. Types of anxiety are a social anxiety disorder, selective mutism, agoraphobia, specific phobia, panic attack, and separation anxiety disorder 3. As per the severity of anxiety treatment of anxiety can be changed. Normally treatment of anxiety starts with adjustment in the nourishment intake and also an amendment in the way of life. Psychotherapy is likewise utilized for anxiety treatment. But change over to medications when these remedies are not efficient 12.
Classification of Anxiolytics:
TABLE 1: CLASSIFICATION OF ANXIOLYTICS
|Pharmacological class||Drugs||Adverse Effects|
|Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor||Paroxetine, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Sertraline, Escitalopram||Nausea, insomnia, headache, diarrhea, sexual dysfunction, somnolence|
|Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor||Duloxetine,
|Nausea, insomnia, headache, diarrhea, sexual dysfunction, somnolence, hypertension|
|Benzodiazepines||Diazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Lorazepam Alprazolam, Clonazepam, Oxazepam.||Appetite change, cognitive
problems, somnolence, fatigue,(Effects of class)
|Tricyclic Antidepressant||Doxepine, Clomipramine,
|Dry mouth, urinary retention, weight gain, constipation, dizziness, orthostasis, somnolence, sexual dysfunction, (Effects of class)|
|MAO inhibitor||Phenelzine||Dry mouth, orthostasis, sexual
dysfunction, constipation, weight gain, dizziness, headache, somnolence
|Antihistamine||Hydroxyzine||Dry mouth, headache, sedation, dizziness|
|Other||Buspirone||Nausea, headache, dizziness|
Presently available treatments are effective for about two third of the anxiety patients. Furthermore, anxiety disorder also produces various systemic adverse effects and show tolerance and dependence to the long term treatment which now turns into a major concern about the currently using medications 13 so modern sciences is in search of a drug which has greater efficacy, minor unwanted effects having least or no dependence as well as tolerance.
Herbs which are extensively established resource of medicine, that take part a significant role in the programme of health care worldwide 14. Therefore various conventionally used plant show pharmacological action with prospective therapeutic uses in the cure of CNS disorders, like anxiety 15, 16. As a consequence of the increasing demand of people for herbal medicines in this study we try to evaluate the anxiolytic property of Trachyspermum ammi leaves. Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) is an inhabitant of Egypt and cultivated in many countries like Pakistan, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Iran. In several cities of India, it is also grown like Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar and West Bengal 17.
T. ammi is extensively cultivated in scorched and semi-scorched areas 17 where soil has elevated level of salts 18. Trachyspermum ammi is generally used as a spice in curries because of its characteristic aroma & pungent taste. T. ammi seeds are utilized in a minute amount to give flavor to the number of foods, also utilize in medicine as a preservative as well as in perfumery for the production of its essential oil 19.
Medicinally it is used in India, and used as a home remedy for treating disorders of the stomach, for relieving colic pains (fruits are crushed and make a paste then externally applied), and for treatment of asthma hot and dry fomentation of T. ammi fruit apply on chest 20. Trachyspermum ammi has been revealed to have anthelmintic; antihyperlipidemic, anti-aggregatory effects 21-23, insecticidal 24, kidney stone inhibitory 25, antimalarial 26, molluscicidal 27-29; for the treatment of amenorrhoea T. ammi seeds are sopped in juice of lemon along with Prunus amygdalus (badam) 30 and also used as antipyretic, febrifugal as well as in the treatment of typhoid fever 31, 32.
FIG. 1: LEAVES OF TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI
MATERIALS AND METHODS: To study the anxiolytic activity of Trachyspermum ammi we experimented on mice. At first, we prepared an ethanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi leaves and then methanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi. For the preparation of ethanolic extract, we purchase leaves of Trachyspermum ammi from the local nursery of Karachi which were identified by Prof. Dr. Iqbal Azhar, Dean, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi.
For the preparation of ethanolic extract, first leaves were separated from their stems then washed with distilled water then dry it. Dried leaves were then ground by the help of mortar and pestle and then macerated with 250 ml of ethanol for 15 days at room temperature after that filter it by the help of Watmann filter paper. The filtrate is then allowed to dry at room temperature resultant paste is of dark green and, i.e. an ethanolic extract. For the preparation of methanolic extract, residue obtains from the filtrate of ethanolic extract was then macerate with 250 ml of methanol for 15 days after that filter it by the help of Watmann filter paper. Filterate is then allowed to dry at room temperature resultant paste is of dark green and, i.e. a methanolic extract.
Animals: To experiment with Swiss albino mice with average weights of 20 g were selected. Mice were taken from the animal house of Jinnah University for Women, Karachi. Mice are kept under standard conditions with 12 h day and night cycle in the animal house. Mice were familiarized to laboratory conditions minimum of 1 h before they initiate the experiment. Noise, light, and temperature should remain the same for all mice. Fecal matter and Urine are removed after each experiment to clean the apparatus 70% ethanol is used.
Grouping: We take 18 mice and divided into 3 groups which are Group 1 that is the controlled group that receives normal saline, Group 2 that receives a methanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi leaves, Group 3 that receives an ethanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi leaves.
Treatment Schedule: Group 1 was treated with normal saline. Group 2 was treated with ethanolic extract of T. ammi leaves, and Group 3 was treated with a methanolic extract of T. ammi leaves. The doses of extracts were calculated to administer 2 mg/ml of the extract solution. The dose was given once daily. It is a 45 days study. Anxiolytic activity was examined by using the light/dark box.
Light and Dark Box: Light and dark test is another commonly used anxiety model. This test focuses on the intrinsic hatred of animals towards illuminated regions that are bright as well as on the exploratory behavior of animals in the reaction of stressor that is mild that is novel light & experiment. The light and dark model allows an animal to freely explore 2 compartments which are interconnected; compartments differ in its size (2:1), differ in color (white: black) and also differ in illumination (bright: dim).
Therefore, the mice of the controlled group when placed into the bright light compartment it speedily goes in the darker area. After treated with anxiolytic drug apparent anxiety of remaining in or moving towards the light area is apparent apprehension of remaining in or moving to the light area is eradicated. Since, then the L/D test has been widely adopted as an anxiolytic screening test in mice, extended for use with rats and has been subject to several modifications 33.
FIG. 2: LIGHT AND DARK BOX
Statistical Analysis: Analysis of experimental data was done in SPSS by making use of two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Scheffe test of Post Hoc.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Data analysis by using two way ANOVA with scheffe test of Post Hoc analysis gives highly significant results, i.e. (P<0.000) for both MET and EET that shows a decrease in duration in dark box and increase duration in lightbox throughout the experimental period, i.e. day 7-day 45.
TABLE 2: EFFECT OF MET AND EET VERSUS CONTROLLED GROUP IN LIGHT AND DARK MODEL (IN LIGHT COMPARTMENT
|Duration||Groups||Mean ± Standard deviation|
** p<0.000 is highly significant.
Effect of MET and EET in comparison with the controlled group on mice by using Light and dark model (in the light compartment) has been shown in Table 2, the highly significant result has been obtained, i.e. (P<0.000).
Effect of MET and EET in comparison with the controlled group on mice by using Light and dark model (in dark compartment) has been shown in Table 3, the highly significant result has been obtained, i.e. (P<0.000). Comparison of the mean of MET and EET with the controlled group by using the Light and dark model (in the light compartment) has been shown in Fig. 3. Comparison of mean of MET and EET with the controlled group by using Light and dark model (in the light compartment) has been shown in Fig. 4.
TABLE 3: EFFECT OF MET AND EET VERSUS CONTROLLED GROUP IN LIGHT AND DARK MODEL (DARK COMPARTMENT)
|Duration||Groups||Mean ± Standard deviation|
** p<0.000 is highly significant.
Trachyspermum ammi seeds possess anxiolytic effect may be due to extract containing more content of thymol which is considered to potentiate GABA receptors and increase chloride ion channel opening, a mechanism followed by various hypnotics / sedatives, CNS depressants, and anticonvulsants 34. Studies on the essential oil of Ducrosia anethifolia revealed that it has anti-anxiety and sedative effects mainly due to the presence of α-pinene, whereas studies on another species of Ducrosia ismaelis also showed highly significant dose-dependent central nervous system depressant effects 35 having α-pinene as the major component. The more recent study on the essential oil of Alpinia zerumbethas also demonstrated anxiolytic effect which contains α-pinene 36. Since, α-pinene is also present in the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi L., hence it can say that present results of Trachyspermum ammi are due to the presence of α-pinene in its essential oil, however further studies on a large number of animals in different extracts at different doses and species are needed to explore the exact mechanism of action and confirmation of the current study.
MET: Methanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi, EET: Ethanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi
CONCLUSION: From our study, we may conclude that both methanolic extract and ethanolic extract of Trachyspermumm ammi leaves extract on light and dark model possess anxiolytic activity.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Nazeer S, Khan UG and Naveed S: Anxiolytic activity of Traschyspermum ammi leaves. Int J Pharmacognosy 2017; 4(5): 179-84. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.4(5).179-84.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
S. Nazeer *, U. G. Khan and S. Naveed
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan.
27 February 2017
20 April 2017
25 April 2017
01 May 2017