ANTIBACTERIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ROOT EXTRACTS OF EUCLEA RACEMOSA SUBSP. SCHIMPERIAbstract
Emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of pathogens and adverse effects of antibiotics have rapid lead search for new antimicrobials. Medicinal plants have gained more importance as a source of alternative and effective drugs. Euclea racemosa sub sp. schimperi (DC.) Dandy (Ebenaceae) has many traditional uses against infections and related disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial potential and identify major phytochemical groups in root extracts of E. racemosa. Root part of the plant was extracted by maceration using methanol, acetone, and chloroform. Extracts were subjected to antibacterial screening against seven bacteria strains: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC215223), Streptococcus pneumonia (ATCC49619), Streptococcus pyogenes (ATCC19615), Escherichia coli (ATCC259292), Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC70060), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853), and Salmonella typhi (ATCC1912/R). Well, the diffusion method was used to perform the antibacterial screening. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and phytochemical screening was also done on the extracts. Results indicated that the different extracts displayed significant (P<0.05) antibacterial activities and the methanol extract were more active. Flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins, and triterpenes were detected in the root extracts of E. racemosa. Lowest MIC (300 mg/ml) was exhibited by methanol extract against S. pneumonia, and chloroform extract against S. typhi; and lowest MBC of 400 mg/ml was displayed by methanol extract against S. pneumonia and S. pyogenes, and chloroform extract against S. pyogenes and S. typhi. It was also shown that the tested extracts seem to demonstrate bactericidal activities. Thus, it was concluded that root extracts of E. racemosa demonstrated antibacterial activity against both grams positive and gram- negative bacteria strains; and this may partly justify the traditional use of the plant against infection and related disorders.
T. Gebremariam, T. Abula and M. Gebrelibanos*
Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacognosy Course and Research Unit, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia.
25 December 2014
18 January 2015
27 January 2015
01 February 2015