AN UPDATED PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW ON HAMELIA PATENS JACQ.HTML Full Text
AN UPDATED PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW ON HAMELIA PATENS JACQ.
Chetna Kaushik * and Manju Vyas Singh
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, Pushp Vihar Sector 3, New Delhi, Delhi - 110017, India.
ABSTRACT: Hamelia patens Jacq. (Rubiaceae) also known as firebush is an ornamental plant native to Florida and has been used traditionally in a number of conditions, including diabetes, pain, skin diseases, respiratory problems, dysentery, etc. This review aims to provide an overview of the plant profile, its phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities. Alkaloids of indole and oxindole class like rumberine, pteropodine, isopteropodine, mitrajavine, flavonoids like kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, 7-0-a-L-rhamnopyranoside, 5, 7, 2’, 5’tetrahydroxyflavanone 7-D-gluco-pyranoside, (-) epicatechin, 5, 7, 2’, 5’- tetrahydroxyflavanone, narirutin and rosmarinic acid, carbohydrate, proteins and tannins have been identified and isolated from firebush. Different extracts of different parts of Hamelia patens have shown various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antidepressant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antilithiatic, hepatoprotective, wound healing, blood sugar lowering, cytotoxic and nanotechnological research has also been conducted. Further research is required for the identification and isolation of bioactive constituents, which might be used as potential drugs in the near future.
Hamelia parents, Rubiaceae, Phytoconstituents, Pharmacological activities
INTRODUCTION: Nature has been providing remedies for almost all diseases since times immemorial. The shift towards plants for the discovery of new entities is tremendously increasing as plants are a safer and cheaper alternative to synthetic drugs. With the emerging diseases, the focus towards natural resources for their cure is also increasing. Hamelia patens Jacq. commonly-known as firebush, scarlet bush, hummingbird bush, and by many other vernacular names, is an ornamental plant native to Florida. This plant has been investigated for a number of biological activities, and many bioactive constituents have been identified and isolated from different parts of the plant.
This review summarizes the profile of the plant in terms of its activities and phytochemical constituents.
1.1. Plant Description: Hamelia patens Jacq. belonging to the Rubiaceae family is an ornamental plant native to tropical America and grows in a tropical or subtropical climate. It is an evergreen tree consisting of orange-red tubular flowers 1. The genus Hamelia Jacq. consists of woody shrubs (Wealth of India) and is distributed from Florida and Mexico to Paraguay. There are two sections in this genus: section Hamelia and section Amphituba. The Hamelia section has red, orange, or yellow tubular flowers, and section Amphituba consists of yellow infundibular or trumpet-shaped flowers 2.
1.1.1. Synonyms: Hamelia erecta Jacq., Hamelia coccinea, Hamelia pedicellata Wernh, Hamelia latifolia Reichb. ex DC.
1.1.2. Species of Hamelia: H. axillaris, H. barbata, H. calycosa, H. chrysantha, H. cuprea, H. longipes, H. macrantha, H. magnifolia, H. ovate, H. pepillosa, H. patens, H. rostrata, H. rovirosae, H. sanguine, H. ventricosa, H. xerocarpa, H. xorullansis, H. grandiflora, H. magniloba, H. ovata, H. pedicellata, H. tubifora, H. viridifolia, H. brachystemon, H. brittoniana, H. axillaris and H. lutea 3, 4.
1.1.3. Taxonomical Classification: 5
|Scientific name||:||Hamelia patens|
|Species||:||Hamelia patens Jacq.|
Common Names: Firebush, scarlet bush, hummingbird bush, butterfly bush, firecracker bush, bálsamo, coloradillo, madura zapote, treshojitas, chichipín 6, polly red head 7 tsapuk 8, coral, trompetilla, jicarillo 92, 10, 11. .
1.1.4. Description: The plant is a shrub or small tree with year-round flowering and grows to about 6-12 ft. height and spreads to about 5-8 ft. It can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, or air layers 12.
1.1.5. Distribution: Scarlet bush is found throughout tropical and sub-tropical America. It is widespread from Mexico to Paraguay. It is also indigenous to Bahamas and Caribbean 2.
1.2 Plant morphology: Leaves are simple, elliptic to ovate, light green or dark green varying to purplish or red depending upon cultivars with entire blade, wavy margin and short petiole (about 1 - 1/2 inches long); arranged in whorls of 3-5 leaves Fig. 1 and about 3 - 8 inches long and 1 - 4 inches wide. The surface is glabrous with villous hairs on both upper and lower side12 Fig. 2.
FIG. 1: TWIG OF H. PATENS
FIG. 2: LEAF OF H. PATENS
Flowers are arranged in cymes with forked terminal and axillary inflorescence with Long and stamens inserted within a fused corolla tube.
The color changes from yellow to orange when buds mature, ultimately becoming orange-red upon pollination 2, 12 Fig. 3.
FIG. 3: H. PATENS FLOWER
Stem are greenish-brown with 0.5 to 1.2 cm diameter and cylindrical shape 13 Fig. 4. Fruits are edible with oval to elliptic shape Fig. 5A and green in color changing to red while ripening and ultimately to purplish-black when mature Fig. 5B 12, 4.
FIG. 4: STEM OF H. PATENS
FIG. 5: (A) AND (B) FRUIT OF H.PATENS
1.3. Pollinators: Hummingbirds, bees, and butterflies 3.
1.4. Ethnobotany: H. patens has been used traditionally for a number of conditions like pain, rheumatism, inflammation, diabetes, wound healing, menstrual cramps, snakebite, scorpion bite, and fever, etc. 3, 10, 14, 15 Table 1.
TABLE 1: ETHNOMEDICINAL USES
|1||Papantla, Veracruz, Mexico||Leaves||Fresh||Decoction||Blood circulation, Colitis, Diabetes, gastritis, Menstruation 11|
|Infusion||Anemia, Diabetes, gastritis, High pressure|
|Squeezed||Skin problems, Fungus|
|2||Tlanchiol, Hidalgo, Mexico||Aerial parts and leaves||Oral||Infusion||Diuretic, Gastritis, Stomach pain, Wounds 10|
|3||Guatemala||Leaves||Infusion||Type 2 diabetes 6|
|4||Belize||Whole plant||Tea||Menstrual cramps and High blood pressure 7|
|Tea bath||Sores and skin rashes|
|Leaves||TopicalGrinded||Sores and skin rashes|
|Flower and Leaf||-||Dermatological diseases 16|
|6||Pachalur hills of Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu, Southern India||Berries||“Varithelmunai” Syrup||Blood dysentery 17|
|7||WexternPanama||Stem-Bark||Infusion||Snake bites and as a post-partum aid to relieve pain 18|
|8||Achuar (Jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador||Leaves||Decoction||Malaria 8|
2. Phytoconstituents: Biosynthesis and production of monoterpenoid indole and oxindole alkaloids was studied by elicitation using jasmonic acid as elicitor 19. Tryptophan, glutamine, glutamic acid, sucrose, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid and strictosidine along with monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloids palmirine and pteropodine were found to be prominent in plants treated with jasmonic acid and loganic acid, aspartic acid, acetic acid, and glucose were high in control plants which was in accordance to analysis from Methanol/Water fractions. Increased level of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, strictosidine synthase, and STR activity was followed by increased levels of isopteropodine, pteropodine, rumberine, specio-phylline, palmirine, and hameline in treated plants. Tryptophan was also confirmed to be a precursor of MIA and MOA via the shikimate pathway.
TABLE 2: PHYTOCONSTITUENTS PRESENT
|Acetone leaves extract 20
Micro propagated plantlets 21
|Oxindole aricine||Acetone leaves extract 20|
|Mitrajavine||Dichloromethane leaves extract 22|
|Tetrahydroalstonine||Micro propagated plantlets 21|
|Palmirine||Ethanolic aerial parts extract 23
Dichloromethane leaves extract 22
Micro propagated plantlets 21
|Ethanolic aerial parts extract 23
Dichloromethane leaf extract 22
Micro propagated plantlets 21
|Isopteropodine||Dichloromethane leaf extract 24, 22
Micro propagated plantlets 21
|(-)-Hameline||Micro propagated plantlets 21|
|Pteropodine||Micro propagated plantlets 21|
|Uncarine-F||Micro propagated plantlets 21|
|Speciophylline||Micro propagated plantlets 21|
|3||Phenylethylamine||Ephedrine||Methanolic leaf extract 25|
|4||Flavanone glycoside||5, 7, 2′, 5′tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-rutinoside||Methanolic aerial parts extract 26|
|Hexane leaves extract 20
Methanolic leaves extract 27
70% ethanolic leaves extract 28
|6||Esterof caffeic acid||Chlorogenic acid||Methanolic leaves extract 27
Ethanolic plant extract 29
|7||Flavonoid||(-)-Epicatechin||Methanolic extract of leaves 27
Ethyl acetate extract 22
|8||Polyphenol||Caffeic acid||Ethanolic plant extract 29|
|9||Flavonoid||Quercetin||Ethanolic plant extract 29|
|10||Flavonoid||Kaempferol-3-O rutinoside||Ethyl acetate extract 22|
|11||Flavonoid||β-carotene||Hexane extract of aerial parts 9|
|12||Cyclic polyol||Quinic acid||70% leethanolic extract of leaves 28|
|13||Phenylpropanoids||Hydroxycinnamic acid||70% ethanolic extract of leaves 28|
|14||Alkyl caffeate ester||Caffeoylquinic acid||70% ethanolic extract of leaves 28|
|15||Proanthocyanidin||Procyanidin β-2||70% ethanolic extract of leaves 28|
|16||Flavonol glycoside||(+)-Catechin 3-O-glucoside||70% ethanolic extract of leaves 28|
|17||Dihydrochalcones flavanoid||3-hydroxyphloretin-2’-O-glucoside||70% ethanolic extract of leaves 28|
|18||Flavonoid||Narirutin, Rosmarinic acid||Methanolic extract of aerial parts 26|
|19||Terpene||(6E, 10E, 14E, 18E)-2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 23-hexamethyl-2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22 tetracosahexaene||Hexane extract of leaves 30|
2E-3, 7, 11, 15, 19-pentamethyl-2-eicosaen-1-ol,
|Acetone extract of leaves 20
Hexane extract of leaves 30
|Acetone extract of leaves 20|
|22||3-β-hydroxy steroid||24-methylcycloart-25-en-3ßol||Acetone extract of leaves 20|
|23||Triterpenoid||Stigma-4-ene-3, 6-dione||Aerial parts 31|
|24||Saturated and Unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons||2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl4H-pyran 1, 3-propanediol, 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl), mome inositol and squalene||Methanolic extract of leaves 32|
TABLE 3: STARCH, PROTEIN, LIPID AND PHENOL CONTENT OF VARIOUS PARTS
|Leaves||Starch||37.5 ± 0.41 mg/g|
|Soluble sugars||48.2 ± 0.64 mg/g|
|Proteins||87.8 ± 0.79 mg/g|
|Lipid contents||28.5 ± 0.77 mg/g|
|Phenol contents||104.6 ± 1.12 mg/g|
|Stem||Starch||28.6 ± 1.12 mg/g|
|Soluble sugars||44.5 ± 0.89 mg/g|
|proteins||34.5 ± 1.14 mg/g|
|Lipid contents||2.6 ± 0.41 mg/g|
|Phenol contents||50.7 ± 1.41 mg/g|
|Bark||Starch||30.4 ± 1.51 mg/g|
|soluble sugars||52.6 ± 1.14 mg/g|
|Proteins||94.2 ± 1.41 mg/g|
|Lipid contents||5.7 ± 1.12 mg/g|
|Phenol contents||47.2 ± 0.89 mg/g|
Quantitative Estimation: Starch, protein, lipid, and phenol content of various parts of H. patens were quantitatively evaluated. The results are summarized in Table 3 33.
3. Biological Activity:
Total Phenols: Quantitative estimation of total phenolic content (T.P.C.) of different extracts of the plant has been done by several researchers, as given in Table 4.
Total Flavonoids: The total flavonoid content of Petroleum ether, Chloroform, and Methanol was 8.47 ± 0.67, 15.09 ± 1.21, and 43.42 ± 1.41 mg rutin equivalents per gram of dried extract, respectively when determined using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method 34.
TABLE 4: TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT
|S. no.||Extract||Total phenolic content (mg gallic acid equivalent per gm)|
|1||Stem||Petroleum ether||19.083 ± 1.12 34|
|Chloroform||30.58 ± 1.28|
|Methanolic||99.25 ± 1.39|
|2||Crude methanolic||141.58 +/- 11.99 35|
|Hexane||33.96 +/- 1.13|
|Ethyl acetate||375.18 +/- 13.09|
|Butanol||132.08 +/- 3.62|
|4||Stem + Bark||Aqueous
( 25 + 25 g)
(15 + 35 g)
(35 + 15 g)
Antioxidant Activity: Various extracts of Hamelia patens has been evaluated for antioxidant activity using different assays, and the results obtained are summarized in Table 5.
TABLE 5: IC50 VALUES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS IN DIFFERENT ANTIOXIDANT ASSAYS
|S. no.||Assay||Extract||Result (IC50)|
|DPPH||Leaf||Ethanolic (70%)||116 µg/mL 37|
|DCM–EtOAc||158.2 ± 9.6 30|
|MeOH–EtOAc||IC50 18.6 mg/mL 30|
|MeOH–Aq.||93.9 ± 12.1 30|
|Stem||Petroleum ether||250.58 34|
|Methanolic crude||77.87 ± 5.67 μg/mL 35|
|Hexane||236.64 ± 26.32 μg/mL 35|
|Ethyl acetate||45.87 ± 2.24 μg/mL 35|
|Butanol||50.97 ± 0.85 μg/mL 35|
|2||Nitric oxide scavenging assay||Stem||Petroleum ether||219.97 34|
|3||Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay||Stem||Petroleum ether||172.54 34|
|Bark||Aqueous||76.11 ± 0.01 36|
|Acetone||93.07 ± 0.06 36|
|Methanolic||91.09 ± 0.12 36|
|Stem + Bark||Aqueous (25 + 25 g)||81.09 ± 0.12 36|
|Aqueous (35 + 15 g)||82.13 ± 0.20 36|
|Aqueous (15 + 35 g)||73.88 ± 0.01 36|
|4||Metal chelating activity||Stem||Petroleum ether||294.12 34|
Along with 22 Mexican species, free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of hexane, acetone, and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of H. patens were studied. The β-carotene bleaching method and DPPH radical scavenging assay were used. Methanolic extract was found to have greater antioxidant activity than acetone least activity was observed in the hexane extract of Hamelia patens. H. patens showed similar activity as BHA (Butylated Hydroxyl Anisole) and higher activity than natural anti-oxidant like α-tocopherol 9.
Anti-inflammatory Activity: Hexane, chloroform, and methanolic extracts of the plant have been evaluated for topical anti-inflammatory activity using croton oil ear edema mice model and chloroform extract was found to have the highest activity with ID 255 µg/cm2 which was comparable to indomethacin (ID50 = 93 µg/cm2) 38. In carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats (oral) and TPA (12- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) induced ear edema in mice (topical), HEX extract at 500 and 200 mg/kg b. wt significantly decreased the inflammation. The highest myeloperoxidase activity inhibition was shown by MeOH–EtOAc (83.5%) 30.
Antimicrobial Activity: Camporese et al., evaluated the antibacterial activity of hexane, chloroform, and methanol leaf extracts of H. patens against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis amongst which only hexane extract was found to effective against E. coli 39. Okoye et al., also studied the antimicrobial activity of the plant leaf extracts (Ethanol, Methanol, Petroleum ether, and aqueous extract) against E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhiand, S. aureus and antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger.
The minimum inhibitory concentration was between 12.5 mg/ml to 100 mg/ml. Ethanolic extract showed the highest antimicrobial effect 40. Anti-bacterial activity of Ethanolic (70%) leaf extract prepared using Maceration, Soxhlet and Percolation against Escherichia coli, Staphy-lococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, and S. paratyphi was compared by Paz et al., and the activity was not found to differ significantly in extracts prepared by three methods, and all the extracts showed antimicrobial activity 28. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aqueous, acetone, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of bark, stem, and stem + bark extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas flurescens, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Alternaria alternata was done by Singh et al., using agar well diffusion and serial dilution methods extracts tested were Aqueous, Acetone, Methanolic and Ethanolic extracts of Bark, Stem, and Stem + Bark. Acetone extracts were found to have the highest activity 36. A bubacker et al., studied the antifungal potential of leaf, flower and fruit aqueous extracts for Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Leaf and fruit extract were effective 41. At 10% Aq. leaf extract inhibited A. fumigates, C. albicans, F. oxysporum and R. solani completely; Flower extract inhibited F. oxysporum and R. solani by 100% while fruit extract inhibited all the fungal strains. Silver nanoparticles synthesized from aqueous leaf extract of H. patens were tested for antibacterial activity against Salmonella ebony Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Reddy et al., Maximum activity of the nanoparticles was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Salmonella ebony 42.
Anticancer Activity: Studies conducted to evaluate its cytotoxic activity with the cells used, and results obtained are summarized in Table 6.
Antinociceptive Activity: In thermal-induced nociception (hot plate) and the chemical-induced nociceptive tests (acetic acid and formalin), the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves was evaluated Table 7 47. Rao et al., 48 also studied the analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of H. patens leaves using hot plate test and formalin-induced paw licking test in rats and observed that extract (50-200 mg/kg b. wt.) increased reaction time of animals in a dose-dependent manner.
Blood Sugar Lowering Activity: HEX, DCM–EtOAc, MeOH–EtOAc, and MeOH–Aq. extracts were evaluated for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition. The highest inhibition was exhibited by HEX extract with IC50 value was 26.07 mg/ mL 30. The ability of crude and fractional methanolic extracts to reduce blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia was evaluated.
All the extracts normalized the glucose level after 10 administrations. Epicatechin and chlorogenic acid out of the five compounds identified in the extracts demonstrated Anti-hyperglycemic activity 27 and may be considered responsible for the activity. Alloxan induced diabetes in rats has also been used to investigate the anti-diabetic activity of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts of H. patens (100 and 400 mg/kg). Both the extracts reduced blood glucose level, total cholesterol, and total triglycerides significantly in a dose-dependent manner, which was comparable to that of Standard drug glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, body wt.).
TABLE 6: CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY IN DIFFERENT CANCER CELLS
|S. no.||Extract||Cancer Cells||Result|
|1||Root bark extract||Cervix adenocarcinoma (Hela)||IC50 = 13 μg/mL 43|
|IC50 8.42 ± 1.1C50 µg/ml 44
IC50 90.40 ± 18.48 µg/ml
IC50 91.47 ± 19.74 µg/ml
|3||Crude leaf and flower extracts||Liver carcinoma
|Crude leaf and flower extracts, both ME and ZSM-5 encapsulated could be used as ancillary therapy for liver carcinoma 45
For breast carcinoma, crude extracts were found to be more effective. Chloroform leaf fraction showed antiproliferative potency in both the cell lines. Microemulsion form of the methanolic fraction was more potent than plain, and ZSM-5 encapsulated form
|4||Plant extracts||HeLa cells||No significant cytotoxic activity was found 46|
|5||Methanolic, hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts||Vero cells||No significant activity 35|
TABLE 7: ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT
|Thermal induced nociception||100 mg/kg||17%|
|Formalin induced nociception||100 mg/kg||30%|
|Acetic acid induced nociception||100 mg/kg||57%|
Hepatoprotective Activity: Methanolic crude, hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol extracts of H. patens were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity. Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activity on HepG2 cells damaged with CCl4 was done, and best activity was shown by Butanol extract (43.74 ± 4.03) 35.Hypoglycemic effects of aerial parts of H. patens ethanol (50%) and water extracts were demonstrated in STZ nicotinamide induced diabetes in rats. Water extract produced hypoglycemic effect after 120 min while ethanol (50%) extract produced effect after 60 min, which was similar to glibenclamide, which also showed hypoglycemic effects after 60 min 29.
Antidepressant: Chloroform and methanolic extracts were investigated for antidepressant activity in mice.
Chloroform extract (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) showed better activity in forced swim test and tail suspension test by decreasing immobility time. No significant change in locomotor activity was shown by the extracts in open field tests 49.
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory: Docking after GC-MS analysis of a methanolic extract of H. patens leaves was done.
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the extract was studied both in-vitro and in-vivo on the brain of Danio rerio (zebrafish), which was found to be significant 50.
Toxicity Studies: The LD50 of 500-500 mg/kg b. wt. of H. patens leaves ethanol extract was found to be 2964 mg/kg b. wt. i.p. and >5000 mg/kg b. wt. p.o (peroral) acute and subacute toxicity studies respectively 47. Some other pharmacological activities evaluated by researchers are summarized in Table 8.
TABLE 8: OTHER PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
In-vitro (Inhibitory effect on the smooth muscles) and In-vivo in mice and rats
|Methanol extract||Most potent activity at 100 mg/kg 51|
against Leishmania mexicana
|Methanol leaf extract was partitioned between Hexane, Dichloromethane and Ethyl acetate
Four alkaloids from DCM extract
|Highest activity shown by Dichloromethane and Ethyl acetate extract and Palmirine 22|
|3||Antiurolithiatic activity||Roots decoction||Potent anti-urolithiatic activity 52|
|4||Antilithiatic activity (ethylene glycol (EG) used to alter the ionic level of urine)||Ethanolic leaf extract||The levels of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and oxalate ions level scaled down and level of magnesium was increased 53|
|Ethanolic leaf, stem and root extracts||Immobilization of Pheretima posthuman 54|
|6||Indicator for acid-base titrations activity||Methanolic flower extract||Good activity in strong acid against strong base, strong acid against a weak base, weak acid against strong base and weak acid against weak base titrations 55|
for finding out a new compound like Nutlin
|Methanolic extract||Five compounds (isopteropodine, rumberine, palmirine, maruquine and alkaloid A) hypothesized to have the potency to inhibit MDM2 protein 56|
|8||Stabilizing and reducing agent||Plant extract||Reducing and stabilizing agent for formulation of Ag-Au nanoparticles at a concentration of 2% w/v and proved to be a fast reducing agent 57|
|9||Antipyretic activity (Brewer’s yeast
|Ethanolic leaf extract||The reduction in temperature from 38.2 ± 0.4 to 36.0 ± 0.3 after 120 min of the administration of 200 mg/kg 48|
|10||Antiviral activity (VHS- 1and VHS-2 cells)||Plant extracts||No significant anti-herpetic activity 46|
|11||Wound healing activity
Double incision wound healing model
|Ethanolic extract of aerial parts||Breaking strength of wounds increased 58|
|12||Myometrium relaxant activity
KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium
|Five different samples collected from Mexico||Positive responses probably because of presence of oxindole alkaloids 23|
CONCLUSION: Hamelia patens are rich in bioactive constituents which might be responsible for its various pharmacological activities. Various extracts of leaves, flowers, stems and roots of the plant as well as the major constituents isolated have shown potent activities.
Further, research is needed to identify and isolate bioactive ingredients that would be beneficial in various diseases and may reduce dependence on synthetic drugs.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Kaushik C and Singh MV: An updated phytopharmacological review on Hamelia patens jacq. Int J Pharmacognosy 2020; 7(3): 52-61. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.7(3).52-61.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
C. Kaushik * and M. V. Singh
Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India.
22 January 2020
18 March 2020
21 March 2020
31 March 2020