A REVIEW ON PASSION PLANT SPECIES AND IT’S PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONHTML Full Text
A REVIEW ON PASSION PLANT SPECIES AND IT’S PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTION
Jaya Ambhore *, Vaibhav Adhao and Rameshwar Cheke
Department of Pharmacy, Dr. Rajendra Gode College of Pharmacy, Malkapur - 443101, Maharashtra, India.
ABSTRACT: For humankind, a major wellspring of the bioactive compound, the family Passiflora L. contains near about 520 types of dicotyledonous plants in the family Passifloraceae. Passiflora incarnata and P. alata, likewise generally known as passionflower. Two types of perpetual climbing vine with lovely extraordinary flower and scrumptious organic products that become around the world, favoring subtropical, ice-free atmospheres. The arrangement, by and large, found in the tropical, semi-tropical United States (Virginia to Florida and as far west as Texas), Mexico, Central American, and from Brazil to Paraguay through northern Argentina. Treatment of some diseases like anxiety, insomnia, convulsion, sexual dysfunction, cough, and cancer. Passionflower is at present authority in the national Pharmacopeia's of Egypt, France, Germany, and Switzerland and furthermore monographed in the British Herbal Pharmacopeia. The present article including the detailed about of pharmacological properties of Passion flower and to provide information for further research on passion plants.
Passion flower, Insomnia, Convulsion Passiflora incarnata
INTRODUCTION: The family Passiflora com-prises of 500 species that are, for the most part, found in warm and tropical districts. Passiflora originates from the Latin word "Passio" that was first time found by Spanish pioneers in 1529 and was depicted as an image for "Enthusiasm of Christ" the passion flowers or passion vines (Passiflora) have a class of around 400 types of blooming plants and the biggest in the group of Passifloraceae. They are, for the most part, vines, with some being bushes and a couple of animal types being herbaceous. The types of this sort are circulated in the warm, calm, and tropical locales of the world; however, they are a lot rarer in Asia, Australia, and tropical Africa.
The clinical utility of not many types of Passiflora has been experimentally considered. Passion flower extricates been characterized into a few classi-fications of synthetic exercises like an anxiolytic, spasmolytic, sleep-inducing, calming, opiate 1-4. These concentrates are a piece of a treatment that has effectively treated outpatients with change issues and on edge mind-set. Numerous species have been found to contain beta-carbolineharmala alkaloids with stimulant properties.
The flower and natural product have just hints of these synthetic substances, yet the leaves and the roots are regularly increasingly powerful and have been utilized to upgrade the impacts of psyche changing medications. When dried, the leaves can likewise be smoked.
Passiflora quadrangular is utilized by conventional healers for snakebites. Snakebites cause blood thickening and in the end burst veins around the nibble; this is known as hemorrhaging 5-6.
Classification of Passion Plants:
Natural Source: Passiflora incarnata L.
Genus: Passiflora L.
Species: Passiflora incarnata L.
Characteristics: The stems wiry; three-lobed leaves, serrate; pale pink flower 5-7 cm over; natural products fruits ovoids or globose, 3-5 cm long Fig. 1 7.
Bioactive Compounds found in Passion Plant: The substance of Passiflora species is additionally not well delineated. Examiners have varied on whether its calming impacts are expected to indole alkaloids, for example, harmane, harmaline and harmol; flavonoids, for example, apigenin, luteolin, and scopoletin; or a separated trisubstituted benzo-flavone. Additionally, as of late, it was resolved that Passiflora contains more gamma-aminobutyric corrosive (GABA) than 20 different plants examined. One of six alkaloids secluded from P. incarnata has been designated "Passiflorine and is accepted by some to be the plant's dynamic compound, in spite of the fact that the Agricultural Research Service's site Ppassiflorine as latent. The Chemical Abstract Service's database's just comparable passage is "Passi-florine," a steroid-like particle found in P. edulis stems and leaves that isn't an alkaloid. Passionflower separates comprise of new or dried flying pieces of P. incarnata or P. alata, gathered during the blooming and fruiting period. Herbal character is affirmed by slender layer chromatography, minute and plainly visible assessment, and organoleptic assessment. Extract contain 0.825% apigenin and luteolin glycosides, vitexin, isovitexin, and their C glycosides, kaempferol, quercetin, and rutin; indole alkaloids (0.01%), for the most part, harman, harmaline, harmine; coumarin subordinates; cyanogenic glycosides (gynocardin); amino acids (counting GABA); unsaturated fats (linoleic and linolenic); gum; maltol; phytosterols (stigmasterol); sugars (sucrose) and a hint of unpredictable oil 8-14.
FIG. 1: PASSIONFLOWER AND FRUIT
Organic Compounds found in Passionflower: Passionflower contains numerous alkaloids, flavonoids just as numerous natural mixes, for example, natural acids. This family is wealthy in formic, butyric, linoleic, linolenic, malic, myristic, oleic, and palmitic acids just as phenolic mixes, and the amino corrosive α-alanine. A few animal groups contain esters, for example, ethyl butyrate, ethyl caproate, n-hexyl butyrate, and n-hexyl caproate, which give the organic products their flavor and tempting smell. Sugars, contained primarily in the natural product, are, for the most part, d-fructose, d-glucose, and raffinose. Among compounds, Passiflora was seen as wealthy in catalase, gelatin methylesterase, and phenolase. Aside from glycosides, phenols, and alkaloids, different various phytoconstituents, which were likewise answered to be in P. edulisincorporate, Edulans I and II, and gelatins. The gelatin portions contain sugars (83-85%, w/w) predominantly. In any case, non-sugar parts, for example, nitrogen-containing material (3 - 8%, w/w) and debris (5 - 7%, w/w) are likewise present in these portions 15-17.
Pharmacological Action of Passion Plants:
Anticonvulsant Activity: The present treatment of epilepsy with current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is related with symptoms, portion related and constant harmfulness and teratogenic impacts and roughly 30% of the patients keep on having seizures with current AEDs treatment. Characteristic items from people cures have contributed essentially in the revelation of present-day medicates and can be an elective hotspot for the disclosure of AEDs with novel structures and better security and viability profiles. Proof for the anticonvulsant action of P. incarnate in the clonic seizure of the pentylene-tetrazole model has been tried. As the defensive impacts of P. incarnata in clonic seizure, it recommends that it could be valuable for the treatment of a missing seizure. Besides, the significant job of the benzodiazepine receptor in the impacts of P. incarnata ought to be viewed 18.
Anti-inflammatory Activity: The watery leaves concentrate or extract of Passiflora species showed intense mitigating activity in the trial model in-vivo. The watery leaves concentrate of P. edulis has a critical calming action on mice. The fundamental organization of P. edulis showed articulated calming activities, portrayed by hindrance of leukocyte inundation to the pleural cavity and related with a checked bar of myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, TNF-α, and IL-1α levels in the intense model of aggravation brought about by intrapleural infusion of mice. In one analysis, P. edulis was progressively compelling in stifling the TNF-α and IL-1α levels than dexamethasone. P. edulis along these lines might be a wellspring of new helpful competitors with a range of movements like the present calming steroids, for example, dexametha-sone19-21.
Anti-cancer Activity: P. nitida leaf and P. palmeri stem extricates were described by a high cancer prevention agent power that associates with high catechin and odiphenol substance and shows aCell reinforcement Activity: P. nitida leaf and P. palmeri stem separates were described by a high cancer prevention agent power that connects with high catechin and odiphenol substance and shows antimicrobial movement. Be that as it may, P. foetida leaf removes, which additionally show high antimicrobial action, have low cell reinforcement force and low measures of o-diphenol and catechin. P. tenuifila leaves show extremely high measures of flavones and complete phenols, yet the middle of the road levels of cell reinforcement movement, most likely because of the lower commitment of o-diphenols and gallocatechin comparative with the phenol content. The cancer prevention agent action of leaf and stem concentrates of P. edulis was resolved to utilize the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydroxyl (DPPH) free radical rummaging measure. DPPH offers an advantageous and precise technique for titrating the oxidizable gatherings of normal or engineered enemies of oxidants. The unrefined concentrates (leaf and stem) of P. edulis were blended in with 95% methanol to set up the stock arrangement (10 mg/100 mL 22-24.
Anti-Tumor Activity: Fruit's decoction of various Passiflora species has been assessed for the restraint of the action of gelatinase lattice metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9). Two metalloproteases were associated with the tumor attack, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Water concentrate of P. edulis, at various focuses, was repressed by the compounds 25.
Antimicrobial Activity: In Passiflora species, a significant number of the substance parts of enthusiasm flower (passicol) have antimicrobial movement. The ethanol leaf extricates showed variable degrees of antibacterial action against P. putida, V. Cholera, and moderate movement were noted in S. flexneri and S. pyogenes individually. The (CH3)2CO removes displayed solid to direct action against V. cholerae followed by P. putida, S. flexneri and S. pyogenes. The organic ethanol product removes demonstrated moderate action against the bacterial pathogens, in particular V. cholerae, P. putida, S. pyogenes, and S. flexneri. Among the two sections tried, the leaf extricates showed preferred antibacterial movement over the organic products.
The previous reports concentrated on the antibacterial properties of Passiflora species by various strategies. Antibacterial action of Passiflora, which has got action against Pseudomonas tetrandra, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 26-27.
Congestive Heart Failure: A concentrate containing energy bloom and hawthorn have been concentrated as a potential treatment for the brevity of breath and troublesome utilization of activity in patients with congestive cardiovascular breakdown. Despite the fact that the outcomes are promising, the impacts of enthusiasm bloom alone are indistinct.
The top-notch human research of enthusiasm bloom alone contrasted with professionally prescribed medications utilized for this condition is required before a solid suggestion can be made 28.
Cannabinoids Reversal: The recently announced benzoflavone (BZF) moiety from the plant P. incarnata (Linn) has been assessed considering conventional reports on the utilization of this plant in separating cannabis fixation. In the cutting edge or allopathic arrangement of therapeutics, there has been no appropriate solution for battle the serious withdrawal impacts of different cannabis items, including marihuana, pot, bhang, hashish, ganja, and so on., the overall utilization of which has accomplished disturbing extents, particularly among the younger age. It has been accounted for that the BZF of P. incarnata, when managed simultaneously with cannabinoids, forestalled the advancement of resilience and reliance of cannabinoids in mice. Indeed, even an intense organization of the BZF fundamentally obstructed the declaration of withdrawal impacts in cannabinoid reliance. So these investigations proposed that the BZF may have an advantageous job in cannabinoids inversion 29.
Nicotine Reversal: Some of the pharmacological examinations on the BZF moiety likewise affirmed that the BZF moiety disconnected from P. incarnata was viable in countering the hazard of habit inclined substance nicotine in research center creatures. Considering different reports referencing the helpfulness of P. incarnata in tobacco compulsion, considers have been performed by utilizing the bioactive BZF moiety disconnected from the ethereal pieces of P. incarnata. So, these examinations, albeit fundamental, recommended that the BZF may have an incentive in treating nicotine habit 30.
Alcohol Withdrawal: A BZF moiety has been accounted for as of late to be answerable for the diverse CNS impacts of P. incarnata Linn. In the light of the setup handiness of the BZF moiety in checking the withdrawal impacts of substances like cannabinoids and nicotine by the creators, the bioactive BZF moiety has been tried in mice treated with an addictive portion of ethyl liquor to assess its adequacy in countering liquor reliance. The interminable organization of P. incarnata with liquor would be wise to preventive impacts than the single intense treatment with P. incarnata in liquor subordinate mice. These outcomes recommended that the treatment of P. incarnata concentrate could be utilized as a sheltered and elective medication for liquor withdrawal 31.
Clinical Applications: Allergies not many reports of the utilization of energy bloom items on unfavorably susceptible responses, asthma, aggravated sinuses, skin rashes, and skin vein irritation (Vasculitis) have been accounted for in the accessible writing. It is accepted that a few responses may have been brought about by pollutions in mixed items, not by passion flower itself 32.
Reactions and Warnings: Passionflower is commonly viewed as a protected herb with barely any detailed genuine symptoms. In instances of symptoms, the items being utilized have once in a while been tried for defilement, which may have been the reason. Cyanide harming has been related with passiflora natural product, yet this has not been demonstrated in human investigations. Fast heart musicality, queasiness, and regurgitating have been accounted for. Reactions may likewise incorporate languor/sedation and mental gradual-ness. Patients ought to be careful when driving or working a substantial apparatus. Passionflower may hypothetically build the danger of draining and influence blood tests that measure blood coagulating. There is an announced instance of liver disappointment and demise of a patient taking a readiness of enthusiasm flower with kava. Alert ought to be applied in taking any kava-containing items, as kava has been related with liver harm. It has been proposed that the reason for the liver harm is more uncertain identified with the nearness of energy flower 33.
Uses: The utilizations here depend on a convention or logical speculations of Passiflora species. A portion of these conditions are possibly genuine and ought to be assessed by a certified medicinal services supplier. These conventional uses incorporate liquor withdrawal, antibacterial, hostile to seizure, against fit, sexual enhancer, asthma, consideration shortfall hyperactivity issue (ADHD), copies (skin), malignant growth, constant agony, hack, chronic drug use, Epstein-Barr infection, parasitic contaminations, gastrointestinal inconvenience (apprehensive stomach), Helicobacter pylori disease, hemorrhoids, hypertension, meno-pausal indications (hot flashes), nerve torment, torment (general), skin irritation, strain and wrinkle counteraction.
Some types of Passiflora are developed outside their regular range in view of their wonderful flower. P. manifest L. normally utilized in numerous homegrown cures, is notable for its soothing properties, while a few different animal categories are developed for the creation of organic product juice (P. edulis, P. quadrangularis, P. ligularis). Passicol can likewise be delivered from natural product skins of the purple energy organic product, which are squandered items from the assembling of enthusiasm natural product juice 34.
CONCLUSION: Species of Passiflora are normally found all through the world. These examinations place this indigenous medication as a novel possibility for bio-prospection and medication improvement for the treatment of such ailments as nervousness, sleep deprivation, seizure, sexual problem, hack, malignancy, and post-menopausal condition. The therapeutic uses of this plant and countless possibilities for investigation remain in relatively newer areas of its function.
In this review gives in the different kinds of preparation, concentrates have been found to have a wide range of pharmacological impacts on a few organs, for example, the mind, blood, cardio-vascular and sensory systems just as on various biochemical procedures and physiological capacities, including photosynthesis, work limit, generation and sexual capacity. Phytochemicals and minerals of these plants will enable them to exploit their therapeutic use.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are thankful to Dr. Rajendra Gode college of Pharmacy, Malkapur Dist: Buldana (MS) 443101 for providing necessary library facilities.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: There are no conflicts of interest.
- Kinghorn GR: Passion stigma and STI. Sex Transm Inf 2001; 77: 370-75.
- Dhawan K, Dhawan S and Sharma A: Passiflora: a review update. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 94: 1-23.
- Beninca J, Montanher A, Zucolotto S, Schenkel E and Frode T: Evaluation of the antiinflammatory efficacy of Passifloraedulis. Food Chem 2007; 104: 1097-05.
- Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi HR, Vazirian M, Shayeganpour A, Rashidi H and Khani M: Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind, randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm Therapeut 2001; 26-5: 363-67.
- Broutin M, Bugerol T, Guitton B and Broutin E: A combination of plant extracts in the treatment of outpatients with adjustment disorder with anxious mood: controlled study versus placebo. Fundamental Clin Pharmacol 1997; 11(2): 127-32.
- Ingale AG and Hivrale AU: Pharmacological studies of Passiflora and their bioactive compounds. African Journal of Plant Science 2010; 4(10): 417-26.
- Patel SS: Passiflora incarnata Linn: A phytopharma-cological review. International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP)2009; 3(4): 277-80.
- Carratu B, Boniglia C, Giammarioli S and Mosca M: Free amino acids in botanicals and botanical preparations. Journal of Food Science 2008; 73(5): 323-28.
- Bradley PR: British herbal compendium, bournemouth. British Herbal Medicine Association 1992; 1: 23.
- Bruneton: J. Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, medicinal plants. Paris: Lavoisier Publishing 1995.
- 'Passiflora eherba.' Monographs on the Medicinal Uses of Plant Drugs. Exeter, U.K.: European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy 1997.
- Newall CA, Anderson LA and Phillipson JD: Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals. London: The Pharmaceutical Press 1996.
- Bisset NG and Wichtl M: Herbal Drugs and Phyto-pharmaceuticals. Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers 1994; 91-95.
- Leung AY and Foster S: Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics, 2nd New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc 1996; 446-48.
- Dhawan K, Dhawan S and Sharma A: Passiflora: a review update. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 94: 1-23.
- Pinheiro ER, Silva IMDA, Gonzaga LV, Amante ER, Reinaldo FT, Ferreira, MMC and Amboni RDMC: Optimization of extraction of high ester pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis flavicarpa) with citric acid by using response surface methodology. Bioresour. Technol 2008; 99(113): 5561-66.
- Yapo BM and Koffi L: Dietary fiber components in yellow passion fruit rind a potential fiber source. J Agric Food Chem 2008; 56(14): 5880-83.
- Nassiri-Asl M, Shariati-Rad F and Zamansoltani F: Anticonvulsant effects of arial parts of Passiflora incarnata extract in mice: Involvement of benzodiazepine and opioid receptors. BMC Co Altern Med 2007; 7: 26.
- Nicolls JM: Antifungal activity in Passiflora Ann. Bot. (London). 1970; 34: 229-37.
- Vargas AJ, Geremias DS, Provensi G, Fornari PE, Reginatto FH, Gosmann G, Schenkel EP and Frode TS: Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis spray dried aqueous extracts inhibit Inflammation in the mouse model of pleurisy. Fitoterapia 2007; 78: 112-19.
- Montanher A, Zucolotto SM, Schenkel E and Frode T: Evidence of anti-inflammatory effects of Passifloraedulis in an inflammation model. J Ethnophar 2007; 109: 281-88.
- Bendini A, Cerretani L, Pizzolante L and Toschi TG: Phenol content related to antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Passiflora extracts. Eur. Food Res Technol 2006; 223: 102-09.
- Blois MS: Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radica. Nature 1958; 26: 1199-1200.
- Cao G, Sofic E and Prior RL: Antioxidant and prooxidant behavior of flavonoids. Structure-activity Free radical Biol Med 1997; 22: 759-60.
- Puricelli L, Aicab ID, Sartorb L, Garbisa S and Caniato R: Preliminary evaluation of inhibition of matrix metallo-protease MMP-2 and MMP-9 by Passiflora edulis and foetida aqueous extracts. Fitoterapia 2003; 74: 302-04.
- Nicolls JM: Antifungal activity in Passiflora Ann Bot (London) 1970; 34: 229-37.
- Birner J and Nicoll JM: Passicol an antibacterial and antifungal agent produced by Passiflora plant species: preparation and physicochemical characteristics. Anti-microb. Agent Chemother 1973; 3: 105-09.
- Capasso A and Sorrentino L: Pharmacological studies on the sedative and hypnotic effect of Kava kava and Passiflora extract combination. Phyt 2005; 12(1-2): 39-45.
- Dhawan K, Kumar S and Sharma A: Reversal of cannabinoids (delta 9 THC) by the benzoflavone moiety from methanol extract of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice: a possible therapy for cannabinoid addiction. J Pharm Pharmacol 2002; 54: 875-81.
- Dhawan K, Kumar S and Sharma A: Nicotine reversal effects of the benzoflavone moiety from Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice. Addict Biol 2002; 7: 435-41.
- Dhawan K, Kumar and Sharma A: Suppression of alcohol cessation oriented hyper-anxiety by the benzoflavone moiety of Passiflora incarnata in mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2002; 81: 239-44.
- Giavina-Bianchi PF, Castro FF and Machado ML: Occupational respiratory allergic disease induced by Passiflora alata and Rhamnus purshiana. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997; 79(5): 449-54.
- Kapadia GJ, Azuine MA and Tokuda H: Inhibitory effect of herbal remedies on 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-promoted Epstein Barr virus early antigen activation. Pharmacol Res 2002; 45(53): 213-20.
- Dhawan K, Kumar S and Sharma A: Reversal of cannabinoids (delta9-THC) by the benzoflavone moiety from methanol extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus in mice: a possible therapy for cannabinoid addiction. J. Pharm Pharmacol 2002; 54(6): 875-81.
How to cite this article:
Ambhore J, Adhao V and Cheke R: A review on passion plant species and its pharmacological action. Int J Pharmacognosy 2020; 7(11): 266-71. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.7(11).266-71.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
J. Ambhore *, V. Adhao and R. Cheke
Department of Pharmacy, Dr. Rajendra Gode College of Pharmacy, Malkapur, Maharashtra, India.
05 May 2020
26 September 2020
28 September 2020
01 November 2020