A REVIEW ON NATURAL REMEDIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY DISORDERSHTML Full Text
A REVIEW ON NATURAL REMEDIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY DISORDERS
GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, G. I. T. A. M. Deemed to be University, Visakhapatnam - 530045, Andhra Pradesh, India.
ABSTRACT: Respiratory disease is a medical term that refers to the pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible in higher organisms and includes conditions of the upper respiratory tract, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleura, and pleural cavity, and the nerves and muscles of breathing cavity. The common respiratory disorders include COPD, Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema and Pneumonia. Currently available drugs for the therapy of respiratory disorders produce side effects. To overcome this problem, medicinal plants and their isolated phytoconstituents are being used extensively to treat minimum side effects. This article depicts the use of herbal plants and their phytoconstituents for the treatment of respiratory disorders.
Respiratory disorders, Herbal plants, Natural remedies, Phytoconstituents
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory disorders are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality affecting people of all ages and are a major global health problem. They involve the air passages like nasal passages, large and small airways (bronchi and bronchioles), and the lungs. Their etiopathology may be inflammatory, allergic, infectious, neoplastic, or traumatic. Both acute and chronic respiratory disorders are one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions or visit to hospitals worldwide. Bronchial asthma, COPD, pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and pneumoconiosis are the most commonly seen respiratory conditions.
A large variety of pharmacological treatment strategies are widely practiced in these conditions, and they include anti-inflammatory agents, bronchodilators, antibiotics, antiallergies, muco-lytics, and antineoplastics. Airway obstruction in asthma is reversible and irreversible in COPD, in which environmental factors like smoke inhalation plays an important role. Asthma is an inflammatory disease, and the symptoms of inflammation start with T helper-2 and dendritic cells, followed by infiltration of eosinophilic cells and mast cell (MC) sensitization, which result in the release of various inflammatory mediators.
COPD is caused by inhalation of toxins and irritants for longer durations, resulting in chronic inflammation of airways and damage of alveolar structures of the lungs. This finally results in conditions like chronic bronchitis, chronic bronchiolitis, and emphysema. A cough is a sudden expulsion of air through the large breathing passages that can help clear them of fluids, foreign particles, or microbes. Common medicinal plants that have been used as a remedy for respiratory ailments since ancient times include Adhatoda vasica (vasaka), Curcuma longa (curcumin), Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice), Ocimum sanctum (tulsi), Piper longum (pepper), Zingiber officinale (ginger).
Adhatoda vasica: Adhatoda vasica (family Acanthaceae) is a shrub used by Asian and European medical practitioners. The plant has been employed in the Indian traditional system of medicine 2. The leaves, roots, flowers, and bark of this plant have been majorly used in cough, cold, asthma; liquefy sputum, bronchodilator, bronchial catarrh, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. The parts of the herbal plant are commonly used in the form of decoction or powder. The juice extracted from the leaves is additionally of times used. Vasaka syrup and Vasaka liquid extract are mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia (1955). Many herbal preparations containing A. vasica are being used, such as Khada in India, Salus Tuss in Germany and Kan Jang and spirote in Sweden. Vasicine is an alkaloid, which is one of the major components of the plant and is responsible for most of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory activities. A derivative of vascinone is bromohexine (N-cycloN-methyl - (2 - amino - 3, 5 – dibromo -benzyl) aminehydrochloride) has been shown to have mucus liquefying or expectorant activity.
Albizia lebbeck: Albizia lebbeck (family Mimosaceae) is a large deciduous perennial woody tree that is being used for cold, cough, asthma, and bronchitis 3. The aqueous extract of bark of A. lebbeck showed antiasthma tic and antianaphylactic activity in experimental studies 4. The flower part of the plant having lupeol, α and β amyrin , benzyl acetate, benzyl benzoate and crocetin , different sterols , triterpene, lebbekanin, saponin, saponin glycosides, crocetin lebbekanin-D, F, G & H as phytoconstituents, used in the herbal treatment of respiratory disorders. The herbal formulation of A. lebbeck, Asthocalm is mainly used for asthma.
Bryophyllum pinnatum or Kalanchoe integra: Kalanchoe integra (family Crassulaceae) has shown many pharmacological activities such as antihelmintic, immunosuppressive, wound healing, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, nephroprotective, antioxidant, antimicrobial, analgesic, anticonvulsant and antipyretic activities. In respiratory disorders, boiled leaf extracts of the plant are useful in the management of acute and chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchial asthma, and palpitation 5. Leaves of K. integra contain flavonoids and tannins, that are found to possess promising effects in the management of bronchial asthma. Thus, it may be a potential herb with anti-inflammatory activity for the management of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma.
Curcuma longa: Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound obtained from the plant Curcuma longa (family Zingiberaceae), known as turmeric, and has been used since age-old. Curcumin has been shown to have antiasthmatic effects in both in vivo and in vitro studies. In an OVA-induced asthma model in guinea pigs, curcumin treatment during OVA sensitization showed significant protective effects through attenuation of bronchial constriction and hyper reactivity 6. This indicated that curcumin had both preventive and therapeutic effects on asthma that were attributed to the suppression of iNOS and subsequent no production, inhibition of inflammatory cytokine synthesis, and down regulation of eosinophil recruitment to airway.
Glycyrrhiza glabra: Glycyrrhiza glabra (family Fabaceae), commonly known as liquorice, an herbaceous perennial and has been used as a flavoring agent in foods and medicinal remedies for thousands of years. Liquorice root has been extensively used around the world to treat cough since ancient times. It contains active compounds, which include glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and chalcones. Glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid are the main active components and are potent inhibitors of cortisol metabolism due to their steroid-like structures. The root of this plant has been used for cough, colds, asthma, and COPD 7. Glycyrrhizin is a triterpene glycoside, a major active constituent obtained from the plant G. glabra. Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid isolated from the G. glabra roots, relaxed the tracheal smooth muscle of guinea pigs in-vitro and in-vivo. The effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and liquiritigenin (a flavonoid of licorice root) on asthma have been tested both in-vivo and in-vitro.
Hedychium spicatum: Hedychium spicatum (family Zingiberaceae), asmall hardy rhizomatous perennial herb and which is mentioned as Shati in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The extract of rhizome of this herbal plant has been reported to contain essential oils, glycosides and saccharides that are used traditionally to treat cough, asthma, and other respiratory ailments and clinically used for the treatment of asthma 8.
Ocimum sanctum: Ocimum sanctum (family Lamiaceae), commonly known as Tulsi, is an annual herb and has been used in the Indian traditional system of medicine. The leaves of this plant have been traditionally used for cough, colds, asthma, and bronchitis 9. The active constituents of O.sanctum isolated are eugenol, carvacrol, and caryophillin.
Piper longum: Piper longum (family Piperaceae) is used as an important traditional medicine in Asia and the Pacific islands. P. longum is known as a good remedy for the treatment of TB and respiratory tract infections 10.
The fruits and roots of this plant have been employed in the treatment of childhood asthma 11. Piperine is a major alkaloid isolated from the P. longum fruits, and it possesses to inhibit the release of T helper-2-mediated cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, and airway hyper-responsiveness in an OVA-induced asthma model 12.
Tylophora indica: Tylophora indica (family Apocynaceae) is a perennial climbing plant and has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine.
The leaves and roots of the plant have been extensively used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders like bronchial asthma, bronchitis, and whooping cough and as an expectorant 13. The extracts of the leaves of T. indica have shown antiasthmatic and antiallergic potential 14, 15. It is considered as the best substitute for Ipecac.
Solanum xanthocarpum: Solanum xanthocarpum (family Solanaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant that is commonly known as Kantkari in traditional Indian medicine, having a vast range of medicinal properties. In the Ayurvedic System of Medicine, it has been listed as a drug for the treatment of bronchitis and asthma. Juice of S. xanthocarpum berries has been reported to be useful for sore throat. S. xanthocarpum has been widely used for the treatment of respiratory diseases in the Siddha system of medicine, mainly in the southern part of India. It majorly contains alkaloids, sterols, flavonoids, saponins, and glycosides. Apigenin, the flavonoid content of this plant, has shown significant inhibition of all asthmatic allergies.
Zingiber officinale: Zingiber officinale (family Zingiberaceae) is a dietary component that is commonly known as ginger. The rhizome of this herbal plant has been extensively used in the treatment of colds, asthma, and bronchitis 7. The essential oil of ginger is called Gingerol, which can be subdivided into gingerols, shogaols, paradols, zingerones, gingerdiones, and gingerdiols.
Tamarindus indica: The well-known food vegetable and medicinal plant of Tamarindus indica Linn (family Fabaceae) used to cure asthma as traditional medicine. The phytoconstituents isolated from the pulp of T. indica are flavonoid, tannin, and saponin. The methanolic extract of leaves of T. indica shows promising activity towards asthma.
Terminalia arjuna: The fresh bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (family Combretaceae) has a potent anti-asthmatic effect by combinational preparation with some of the other medicinal plants as traditional medicine. The phytoconstituents of Terminalia arjuna includes arjunic acid, arjungenin, arjunetin and arjunoglucoside and oleanane-type triterpene glycosides.
Cinnamomum tamala: Cinnamomum (tejpatra) (family Lauraceae) has been used medicinally since ancient times and was a major medicinal plant in medieval times. It is employed for many conditions such as cough and cold, diabetes, arthritis, heart and liver health. The leaves have essential oil, which contains eugenol and phellandrene, alpha -pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, etc.
Alpinia galangal: Alpinia galanga (family Sccitaminaceae) rhizome has been widely used as herbal medicine since ancient times. It is very similar to the health benefits of ginger. It is a good source of fibre and rich in iron, sodium, vit A, vit C and consists of phytoconstituents that include flavonoids, emodin, quercetin, galangol, galangin, gingerol, camphor and eugenol.
Phyllanthus emblica: Phyllanthus emblica (family Phyllanthaceae) is a fruit, highly nutritious and an important source of vit C. The isolated components of this plant include phenolic compounds, tannins, phyllembelic acid, phyllembelin, rutin, curcum-inoids and emblicol. It helps to eradicate the problems of cough, cold and asthma.
Anise Oil: Anise oil (Anisi aetheroleum) is obtained by steam distillation from the dry ripe fruits of Pimpinella anisum L., and star anise oil from Illicium verum Hook. The fruits contain 2-6% of essential oil. The major components of anise oil are trans-anethole (80-95%) and anisaldehyde and trans-anethole and methyl-cavicol in the star anise oil 17. Anise oil can be used for the treatment of respiratory ailments mainly as an expectorant in cough associated with cold 18.
Bitter Fennel Fruit Oil: Bitter fennel fruit oil (Foeniculi amari fructus aetheroleum) is obtained by steam distillation from the ripe fruits of Foeniculum vulgare Miller, ssp. vulgare var. vulgare. The main constituents of the oil are fenchone (12.0-25.0%) and trans-anethole (55.0-75.0%). The traditional herbal medicinal products of bitter fennel fruit oil are used as an expectorant in cough associated with cold 16.
Eucalyptus Oil: Eucalyptus oil (Eucalypti aetheroleum) is obtained by steam distillation and rectification from the fresh leaves or the fresh terminal branchlets of various species of Eucalyptus rich in 1, 8-cineole. The most frequently used species are Eucalyptus globulus Labill., E. polybractea R. T. Baker and E. smithii R.T. Baker. Eucalyptus oil is majorly employed in the treatment of cough, cold, bronchitis and symptomatic relief of colds and catarrh of the upper respiratory tract 18.
Peppermint Oil: Peppermint oil (Menthae piperitae aetheroleum) is obtained by steam distillation from the fresh aerial parts of the flowering plant of Mentha x Piperita. The essential oil yield of peppermint is 1.2-3% and contains menthol (30-55%), menthon (14-32%), isomenthone (1.5-10%), menthyl acetate (2.8-10%), mentho-furan (1-9%), 1,8-cineole (3.5-14%), limonene (1-5%), not more than 3% of pulegone and not more than 1% of carvone, with a higher ratio of cineole compared to that of limonene. The therapeutic use of peppermint oil includes the symptomatic treatment of digestive disorders (e.g. flatulence, irritable bowel syndrome) and the symptomatic treatment of coughs and colds 18.
Tea Tree Oil: Tea tree essential oil (Melaleucae aetheroleum) is obtained by steam distillation from the foliage and terminal branchlets of Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden and Betch) Cheel, M. linariifolia Smith, M. dissitiflora F. Mueller and/or other species of Melaleuca.2% essential oil with the major components of monoterpenes, such as terpinen-4-ol (minimum 30%), gamma-terpinene (10-28%) and 1, 8-cineole (less than 15%). Tea tree oil can be used for the treatment of respiratory infections (e.g., cold, influenza, bronchitis) 18.
Thyme Oil: Thyme oil (Thymi aetheroleum) is obtained by steam distillation from the fresh flowering aerial parts of Thymus vulgaris L., T. zygis Loefl. ex L. or a mixture of both species. The thyme oil contains phenols, mainly thymol and/or carvacrol and terpenoids. The therapeutic application of thyme oil includes respiratory disorders (bronchial catarrh, supportive treatment of pertussis) 18.
Animal Source: Animal-derived natural products still represent the minority of natural sources for products used for respiratory ailments. Many studies describe the use of animal-based products, such as oils, milk, and spleen as a complementary therapy for several diseases, including asthma.
Traditional medicine reports the benefits of consuming some animal parts and animal products once they can be rich in compounds such as lipids, prostaglandins, unsaturated fatty acids, enzymes, and polysaccharides, which are responsible for their pharmacological activities.
Also, animal sources are also widely cited as biocompatible and biodegradable sources, suggesting their safe use. The animal products and compounds cited can be obtained from several sources, such as mammals, amphibians, and crustaceans, demonstrating its wide range of possibilities.
Phytoconstituents: Compounds with different structures but with the same therapeutic activity are isolated from various plant species and used as an active component for the treatment of various diseases. Some of these active components are present in edible plants, and their addition to the diet would be beneficial for respiratory ailments. Various phytoconstituents obtained from several plant sources have been reported in the treatment of respiratory diseases.
Flavonoids: Quercetin is an important dietary flavonoid, which is found in various plants such as onions, apples, tea, berries, and broccoli that has antiasthmatic potential. Quercetin has been reported to have antihistaminic, antiinflammatory, and MC-stabilizing activity 19, 20. Quercetin also suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation in experimental studies 21. Quercetin attenuated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and NF-Κb 22. With respect to allergies, they have specific effects on MCs involved in the allergic response 23. Quercetin decreases eosinophil recruitment, reduces IL-5 and IL-4 levels, and inhibits NF-κB activation in BALF in OVA-induced mouse model 24. It also regulates Th1/Th2 balance by enhancing IFN-γ and decreasing IL-4 levels in a mouse asthma model 25.
Alkaloids: Colchicine is an alkaloid obtained from the plant Colchicum autumnale and has been reported in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis 26 and bronchial asthma 27, 28. An alkaloid fraction of the Peganum harmala plant is an effective traditional medicinal herb for the treatment of cough and asthma with potent antitussive, expectorant, and bronchodilating effects 29. Warifteine is an alkaloid obtained from the plant Cissampelos sympodialis that has been reported to inhibit airway hyper-responsiveness, lung remodeling, and eosinophil infiltration in a mouse model of asthma 30.
Polyphenols: Resveratrol is a dietary polyphenol found in the skin and seeds of grapes. Resveratrol has been shown to have anti-asthmatic potential. It modulates Th1/Th2 balance and the expression of Th2 regulatory transcription factor GATA-3 and decreased levels of the Th-2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5, inbronchoalveolar lavage of sensitized animals 31. It also acts as a mucolytic agent and inhibits mucus overproduction when administered to mice suffering from allergic airway disease. Resveratrol has been shown to inhibit airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in OVA-inducedasthma in the mouse by reducing eosinophil/neutrophil infiltration and the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in plasma and BALF. Naringenin chalcone obtained from tomato is a polyphenol effective in inhibiting eosinophilic recruitment around the airways in a murine model of allergic asthma. Naringenin alleviates airway inflammation and reactivity by decreasing the serum total IgE level and IL-4 and IL-13 levels in BALF and inhibiting NF-KB activity 32.
TABLE 1: PLANTS AND OTHER SOURCES USED IN THE TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY DISORDERS
|luteolin, chrysoeriol, luteolin 7-O-beta-glucopyranoside, chrysoeriol 7-O-beta-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-beta-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside and quercetin 3-O alpha-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-glucopyranoside 33 β-sitosterol34 p-b-D Glucosyl oxybenzoic acid, p-Hydroxybenzoic and caffeic acid 9 alantolactone and Isoalantolactone35||Expectorant and anti-inflammatory
|9-acetamido-3,4 dihydropyrido-(3,4-b)-indole 0-ethyl-z-D-galactoside sitosterol P-D-glucoside and deoxyvasicinone36||Tuberculosis, bronchitis, expectorant
|quassinoid, dehydroexcelsin, glaucarubol sitosterol, 2,6 dimethoxybenzoquinone
malanthin, vitexin. glaucarubin and excelsin ailanthinone, glaucarubinone and glaucarubol 15-isovalerate 13,18-
dehydroglaucarubol 15-isovalerate alkaloids.
3S,24S,25-trihydroxyttirucall-7-ene excelsin, glaucarubine, ailanthinone, glaucarubinone and
glaucarubolone, Tetracyclic Triterpenes37-42
|Asthma and bronchitis
|catechins, kaempferol, quercetin, lupeol, α-amyrine, Albizia saponins A, B, and C, triterpenoids, glycoside and albizinin saponins
kaempferol and quercetin 3-O+rhamnopyranosyl ( 1 4 6)-p glucopyranosyl, Galactopyranosides43-47
|5||Asystasia gangetica||Terpenoid 48||Antiasthmatic
|6||Balanites aegyptiaca||Balanin-1 and Balanin-2 saponins 49 Gentisic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids50||Antiasthmatic|
|7||Benincasa hispida||Astilbin, catechin and naringenin51 triterpenes, phenolics, sterols and glycosides||Lung diseases, asthma and cough|
|acridone alkaloids, grandisinine, grandisine-I, grandisine-II an d 5-methoxyseselin52flavone, honyucitrin, honyudisin and acridone alkaloids53 Buntanme, prenylated acrldone alkaloid and cltrubuntin.||Convulsive cough|
|9||Curcuma longa||Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) and quercetin54||Prevention of asthma, cough and removing sputum|
|ß-Amyrin (Terpenoid) triterpénicos; b-amirina (1), 24 metilencicloartenol; y b-sitosterol and Fueron55||Cough, coryza, bronchitis and asthma|
|Cough, wheezing and asthma|
Methyl N-4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl carbamate and
|Antiasthmatic and protects against bronchial constriction|
|cirsilineol, cirsimaritin, isothymusin, isothymonin, apigenin and rosmarinic acid 58 β-sitosterol-D-glycoside59 eugenol, urosolic acid, carvacrol, linalool, limatrol, caryophyllene, estragol, sitosterol, Orientin and Vicenin60||Antiasthmatic and protects against bronchial constriction|
|Furanoterpenoids 1. 9a_-hydroxy- 4a_H-3,5_,8a_-trimethyl-4,4a,8a,9-tetrahydronaphtho-([2,3b]-dihydrofuran-2- one)-8-one,
2. 4a_H-3,5_,8a_-trimethyl-4,4a,8a,9-tetrahydronaphtho-([2,3b] dihydrofuran-2-one)-8-one 3. 4a_H-3,5_,8a_-trimethyl-4, 4a,8a-trihydronaphtho-([2,3b] dihydrofuran-2-one)-8-one61
|Cold, flu, wheezing of the chest, coughs, influenza, sinus problems and mild asthma|
|Taxoid, 10-deacetyltaxezopidine G and Taxezopidine G62 lariciresinol and taxiresinol63||Cold and cough|
|Antiasthmatic and anti inflammatory|
|18||Abrus precatorius||triterpenoid saponins||Cough|
|19||Cinnamomum tamala||Eugenol , phellandrene, alpha-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, p-cymene||Cough|
|20||Alpinia galanga||Emodin, beta-sitosterol, quercetin, galangol, galangin, gingerol, camphor, eugenol||Antiasthmatic|
|21||Phyllanthus emblica||Phyllembelic acid, phyllembelin, rutin, curcum-inoids and emblicol||Cough , cold and asthma|
|22||Anisi aetheroleum||Trans anethole, anisaldehyde,||Inflammation in respiratory system and chronic bronchitis|
|23||Foeniculi amari fructus aetheroleum||Fenchone and trans anethole||Expectorant in cough associated with cold|
|24||Eucalypti aetheroleum||1,8 cineole||Cough , cold and bronchitis|
|25||Menthae piperitae aetheroleum||Menthol, menthon, isomenthon, menthyl acetate, menthofura, 1,8 cineole, imonene, pulegone ,carvone||Cough and cold|
|26||Melaleucae aetheroleum||Terpinen-4-ol , gamma-terpinene, 1, 8-cineole||Cold , influenza , bronchitis|
|27||Thymi aetheroleum||Thymol, carvacol, terpenoids||Bronchial catarrh, supportive treatment of pertussis|
CONCLUSION: Herbal plants play an important role in the prevention and treatment of various respiratory disorders and infections. The traditional systems of medicine are found to be effective in treating respiratory disorders, and their scientific evaluation has proven the efficacy of plants in the management of several such conditions. The use of herbal plants is being practiced since ancient times. Most of the plants and some other sources containing phytoconstituents have been isolated and checked for their effectiveness towards respiratory disorders. These finds lead to go for further clinical trials against respiratory disorders with less side effects. The above-mentioned plants may produce effectiveness with less adverse effects due to the biological source of constituents. From the above information, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and sterol are a significant class of phytoconstituents used in the herbal treatment of respiratory ailments.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: I would like to express my deep sense of appreciation towards my adviser Dr. K Suneetha, for her professional advice, encouragement, providing reference materials, and devotion of her time to correct this review paper for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Bachelor of Pharmacy.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: No conflict of interest.
- WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants 1999; 1: 1-295.
- Manjunath BL: The Wealth of India, a Dictionary of Indian Raw Materials and Industrial Products. CSIR Delhi, 1948; 31.
- Zia-Ul-Haq M, Ahmad S and Qayum M: Compositional studies and antioxidant potential of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth pods and seeds. Turk J Biol 2013; 37: 25-32.
- Tripathi RM and Das PK: Studies on anti-asthmatic and antianaphylactic activity of Albizia lebbeck. Ind J Pharmacol 1977; 9: 189-94.
- Biswas SK, Chowdhury A and Das J: Literature review on pharmacological potentials of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae). Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2011; 5:1258-62.
- Ram A, Das M and Ghosh B: Curcumin attenuates allergen induced airway hyper responsiveness in sensitized guinea pigs. Biol Pharm Bull 2003; 26: 1021-24.
- Ram A, Balachandar S and Vijayananth P: Medicinal plants useful for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): current status and future perspectives. Fitoterapia 2011; 82: 141-51.
- Chaturvedi GN and Sharma BD: Clinical studies on Hedychium spicatum (Shati): an antiasthmatic drug. J Res Indian Med 1975; 10: 6.
- Ghosh GR: Tulasi (N.O. Labiatae, Genus-Ocimum). NAMAH 1995; 3: 23-29.
- Singh YN: Kava an overview. J Ethnopha 1992; 37: 13-45.
- Dahanukar SA, Karandikar SM and Desai M: Efficacy of Piper longum in childhood asthma. Indian Drugs 1984; 21: 384-88.
- Kim SH and Lee YC: Piperine inhibits eosinophil infiltration and airway hyper responsiveness by suppressing T cell activity and Th2 cytokine production in the ovalbumin-induced asthma model. J Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 61: 353-59.
- Chopra RN, Chopra IC and Handa KL: Tylophora asthmatica Indigenous Drugs of India. UN Dhar & Sons Calcutta 1958; 431.
- Shivpuri DN, Menon MP and Prakash D: A crossover doubleblind study on Tylophora indica in the treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. J Allergy 1969; 43: 145-50.
- Shivpuri DN, Singhal SC and Prakash D: Treatment of asthma with an alcoholic extract of Tylophora indica: a cross-over, doubleblind study. Ann Aller 197; 30: 407-12.
- European Pharmacopoea 5th Edn, Vol. 2. Directorate for the Quality of Medicines of the Council of Europe: Strasburg France 2004, 2206, 2534, 2569.
- Tisserand R and Young R: Essential Oils Safety. Churchill Living-stone Elsevier, London, Edition 2, 2014.
- ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, Thieme Stuttgart, New York, Edition 2, 2003.
- Kimata M, Shichijo M and Miura T: Effects of luteolin, quercetin and baicalein on immunoglobulin E-mediated mediator release from human cultured mast cells. Clin Exp Allergy 200; 30: 501-08.
- Kempuraj D, Madhappan B and Christodoulou S: Flavonols inhibit proinflammatory mediator release, intracellular calciumion levels and protein kinase C theta phosphorylation in human mast cells. Br J Pharmacol 2005; 145: 934-44.
- Takashima K, Matsushima M and Hashimoto K: Protective effects of intratracheally administered quercetin on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury. Respir Res 2014; 15: 150.
- Nanua S, Zick SM and Andrade JE: Quercetin blocks airway epithelial cell chemokine expression. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2006; 35: 602-10
- Lee EJ, Ji, GE and Sung MK: Quercetin and kaempferol suppress immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic infla-mmation in RBL-2H3 and Caco-2 cells. Inflamm Res 2010; 59: 847-54.
- Rogerio AP, Dora CL and Andrade EL: Antiinflammatory effect of quercetin-loaded microemulsion in the airways allergic inflammatory model in mice. Pharmacol Res 2010; 61: 288-97.
- Park HJ, Lee CM and Jung ID: Quercetin regulates Th1/ Th2 balance in a murine model of asthma. Int Immuno-pharmacol 2009; 9: 261-67.
- Peters SG, McDougall JC and Douglas WW: Colchicine in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Ch 1993; 103: 101-04.
- Kelly SJ, Uri AJ and Freeland HS: Effects of colchicine on IgE-mediated early and late airway reactions. Chest 1995; 107: 985-91.
- Schwartz J and Weiss ST: The relationship of dietary fish intake to level of pulmonary function in the first National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES I). Eur Respir J 1994; 7; 1821-24.
- Liu W, Cheng X and Wang Y: In-vivo evaluation of the antitussive, expectorant and bronchodilating effects of extract and fractions from aerial parts of Peganum harmala J Ethnopharmacol 2015; 162: 79-86.
- Bezerra-Santos CR, Vieira-de-Abreu A and Vieira GC: Effectiveness of Cissampelos sympodialis and its isolated alkaloid warifteine in airway hyperreactivity and lung remodeling in a mouse model of asthma. Int Immuno-pharmacol 2012; 13: 148-55.
- Lee M, Kim S and Kwon OK: Anti-inflammatory and antiasthmatic effects of resveratrol, a polyphenolic stilbene, in a mouse model of allergic asthma. Int Immunopharmacol 2009; 9: 418-24.
- Shi Y, Dai J and Liu H: Naringenin inhibits allergen-induced airway inflammation and airway responsiveness and inhibits NF-kappa B activity in a murine model of asthma. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2009; 87: 729-35.
- Matławska I and Sikorska M: Flavonoid compounds in the flowers of Abutilon indicum (L) Sweet (Malvaceae), Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica 2002; 59(3): 227-229.
- Rahuman A, Geetha G, Venkatesan P and Geetha K: Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn,) Sweet, Parasitol Research 2008; 102(5): 981-88.
- Pandey DP, Rather MA, Nautiyal DP and Bachheti RK: Phytochemical analysis of Abutilon indicum, International Journal of Chem Tech Research 2011; 3(2): 642-45.
- Jain MP, Koul SK, Dhar K and Atal CK: Novel nor-harmal alkaloid from Adhatoda vasica. Phytochemistry 1980; 19: 1880-82.
- Kumar D, Bhujbal SS, Deoda RS and Mudgade SC: In-vitro and In-vivo antiasthmatic studies of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb) on guinea pigs. J of Scienti Res 2010; 2(1): 196-02.
- Suroor AK, Shamsuddin KM, Isolation and structure of 13,18- dehydroexcelsin, a quassinoid and glaucarubol from A1lanthus excels. Phytochemistry 1980; 19: 2484-85.
- Ravichandrana V, Sureshb B, Sathishkumarb MN, Elangob K and Srinivasanb R: Antifertility activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Ailanthus excelsa (Roxb): An ethnomedicines used by tribals of Nilgiris region in Tamilnadu. Journal of Ethnopharmacol 2007; 112: 18-91.
- Sherman M, Robert PB, Masaru Ogura, Geoffrey AC and Norman FR: 24 3s, 24s, 25-trihydroxyttirucall-7-ene from Ailanthus excelsa Phytochemistr 1980; 19: 1499-01.
- Bipin CJ, Anuj P and Ramoprakash S and Anakshi K: Quassinoids from Ailanthus excels. Phytochemistry 2003; 62: 579-84.
- Pullela V, Srinivas, Ranga Rao R and Madhusudana Rao J: Two New Tetracyclic Triterpenes from the Heartwood of Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Che and Biod 2006; 3(8): 930-34.
- Tripathi RM and Das PK: Studies on anti-asthmatic and antianaphylactic activity of Albizia lebbeck. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1977; 9: 189-94.
- Mukhopadhay B, Nagaraju K and Sharma KR: Albizia lebbeck: a remedy for allergic conjunctivitis. The J of Res and Education in Indian Medicine 1992; 11, 17–23.
- Agrawal PK and Singh B: Chemical constituents of Albizia lebbeck. Indian J Pharma Science 1991; 53: 24-26.
- Islam MN, Hiroyuki M, Masum S, Pichairajan V, Kazutaka M and Pulok KM: Albizia lebbeck suppresses histamine signaling by the inhibition of histamine H1 receptor and histidine decarboxylasegene transcriptions. International Immunopharma 2011; 11(11): 1766-72.
- Amani MD and Mousallamy EL: Leaf flavonoids of Albizia lebbeck. Phytochemistry 1998; 48(4): 759-61.
- Ezike AC, Akah PA and Okoli CO: Bronchospasmolytic activity of the extract and fractions of Asystasia gangetica Inte J of App Research in Nat Pro 2008; 1(3): 8-12.
- Speroni E, Cervellati R, Innocenti G, Costa S and Guerra MC: Antiinflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antioxidant activities of Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Delile, Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2005; 98: 117-25.
- Medaa RNT, Vlaseb L, Lamien-Medac A, Lamiend CE, Munteanb D and Tiperciuce B: Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del (Balanitaceae) galls and leaves by HPLC-MS , Natural Product Research 2011; 25(2): 93-99.
- Aqilah NMZ, Farooq A, Azizah AH and Nazamid S: Benincasa hispida (Thunb,) Cogn: A potential source for valuable nutrients and functional foods. Food Research International 2011; 44: 2368-76.
- Tian-Shung WV, Changsheng K and Hiroshi F: Acridone alkaloids and a Coumarin from Citrus grandis. Phyrochemistry 1983; 22(6): 1493-97.
- Tian-Shung W, Shiow-chyn H, Ting-Ting J, Jeng-Shiow L and Sheng CK: Coumarins, acridone alkaloids and a flavone from grandis. Phytochem 1988; 27(2): 585-87.
- Hee-ju P, Chang-Min L, In Duk J, Jun Sik L, Young-il J and Jeong Hyun C: Quercetin regulates Th1/Th2 balance in a murine model of asthma. International Immunopharmacology 2009; 9: 261-67.
- Martinez V, Mariano A, Teresa OR and Lazcano ME: Anti-inflammatory active compounds from the n-hexane extract of Euphorbia hirta. Revista de la Sociedad Química de Mexico 1999; 43: 103-05.
- Deepti A, Krishna R, Bijjemb V and Ajudhia NK: Bronchospasm potentiating effect of methanolic extract of Ficus religiosa fruits in guinea pigs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2011; 133: 324-28.
- Oluduro OA, Aderiye BI, Connolly JD, Akintayo ET and Famurewa O: Characterization and antimicrobial activity of 4-(β-Dglucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl thiocarboxamide, a novel bioactive compound from Moringa oleifera seed extract. Folia Microbiol Praha 2010; 55(5): 422-26.
- Kelm MA, Nair MG, Strasburg GM and DeWitt DL: Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory phenolic compounds from sanctum Linn. Phyto 2000; 7(1): 7-13.
- Mizanur RS, Zinnat AM M and Amzad HM: Isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol-D-glycoside from petroleum extract of the leaves of Ocimum sanctum Asian J of Food and Agro-Industry 2009; 2(01): 39-43.
- Carmen AL, William ECl, Tracy S and Peter JS: The bioactivity of novel furanoterpenoids isolated from Siphonochilus aethiopicus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2009; 121(1): 92-97.
- Gerda F, Natalie N, Vinesh M, Schalk VR, Nial H and Rudzani N: Investigation of in-vitro and in-vivo anti-asthmatic properties of Siphonochilus aetethiopicus. Journal of Ethnopharmocology 2011; 133: 843-849.
- Pirali-Hamedani M, Hadjiakhoondi A, Rezazadeh SH, Dowlatabadi R, Amini M and Verdian-Rizi MR: Taxezopidine G and 10- deacetyltaxezopidine G from Taxus baccata growing in Iran. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 2006; 42(4): 394-96.
- Erdemoglu N, Sahin E, Sener B and Ide S: Structural and spectroscopic characteristics of two lignans from Taxus baccata J of Molecular Structure 2004; 692(1-3): 57-62.
- Lee MY, Yuk JE, Kwon OK, Kim HS, Oh SR, Lee HK and Ahn KS: Antiinflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects of Viola mandshurica W, Becker, (VM) ethanolic (EtOH) extract on airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. J Ethnopharmacol 2010; 127: 15-164.
- Lee JY, Lee JG, Sim SS, Whang WK and Kim CJ: Anti-asthmatic effects of phenylpropanoid glycosides from Clerodendron trichotomum leaves and Rumex gmelini herbes in conscious guinea-pigs challenged with aerosolized ovalbumin. Phytomedicine 2011; 18: 134-42.
How to cite this article:
Smruti P: A review on natural remedies used for the treatment of respiratory disorders. Int J Pharmacognosy 2021; 8(3): 104-11. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.8(3).104-11.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.