A REVIEW ON EFFECT OF SEASONAL VARIATION ON PHYTOCHEMICALS OF MEDICINAL PLANTSHTML Full Text
A REVIEW ON EFFECT OF SEASONAL VARIATION ON PHYTOCHEMICALS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
Gautam Palshikar * 1, Shirishkumar Ambavade 2 and P. Shanmugapandiyan 1
Department of Pharmacy 1, PRIST University, Thanjavur - 613403, Tamil Nadu, India.
Sanjay Ghodawat University 2, College of Pharmacy, Kolhapur - 416118, Maharashtra, India.
ABSTRACT: Herbs are used as a source of medicine in Ayurveda and also in some traditional systems of medicine as having lesser side effects and cost when compared with synthetic drugs. Plants live on a planet with days and seasons, and that affects their phytoconstituents. The availability of active principles in medicinal plants changes by seasonal fluctuations, so their dose pattern for therapeutic efficacy also gets influenced. The best duration for the harvesting of specific secondary metabolites for better yield is not fixed. Seasonal impact show changes in important constituents like polyphenol, flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, and essential oil. Late summer is the best collection time for essential oil components. Winter is the best season for the harvesting of secondary metabolites containing plant parts. The results of these studies may help the researcher those who are involved in exploring the isolation of valuable chemicals from the plants for the treatment of various diseases. Therefore, the current review aims to focus on the best possible season for the harvesting of pharmaceutically important plant materials.
Secondary metabolites, Herbal medicines, Season, Constituents
INTRODUCTION: The plants have adapted themselves to live with the cycles that change accordingly. The earth is covered in plants. There were plants before there were ever humans, and before there were other animals. The plants on Earth evolved on Earth. And while those plants were evolving, they were experiencing a 24 day, with dark and light. They were also experiencing seasons that varied across the 365 day year. Plants might not be able to create gadgets, but the very way their internal chemistry works is affected by the daily and seasonal cycles of the earth.
Plants create energy from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide gas in a process called photosynthesis. So, the times of day when there is plenty of light have an effect on that photosynthesis. Plants release different chemicals depending on the time of day. When summer is approaching, the plant prepares itself to absorb the light and create energy. Photosynthesis also requires carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere.
But at night, since it has no light and cannot photosynthesize, there's little point absorbing carbon dioxide gas either. Because of this, many plants close their leaf pores, called stomata, to reduce water loss during the night 1. Some plants will close their flowers during the night for similar reasons, and plants use the length of day as a way of figuring out what time of year it is. When winter is approaching, they can tell the days are getting shorter, and they can start to adapt to that.
The seasonal cycles of plants are probably more well-known. As the days get shorter, some plants use this as a signal that it's time to change their behavior. As winter is approaching, plants like trees will shed the leaves. This process is quite beautiful to humans, producing trees full of orange, red, and yellow leaves. Since there isn't a lot of light to absorb the cold winter, some plants have realized that it is more efficient to keep as much of the moisture as they can inside and wait until there is more sunlight again. So, they pull the moisture from the leaves into the trunk, letting them dry out and fall. Plants need food, water, and sunshine.
Plants get their food from the soil. Animals need food and water, and most of them love sunlight, but there are some that hide away from it. Many of the animals get their food from plants, but some feed upon other animals that they can kill. Most plants and some of the animals sleep a part of each year.
The time which they take to sleep depends upon the climate of the place in which they live. Most of the animals sleep a part of each day or night. Plants do not grow as fast at night as they do in the daylight. In cold countries, plants sleep in the winter. We know they are going to sleep when their leaves begin to fall. When the cold winter comes, they stand so bare that they look as though they were dead. When the trees begin to feel the warmer days of spring, the sap starts again from their roots. It goes up the trunk of the tree and into each tiny branch. The waiting buds soon commence swelling. Almost before we know it, the trees are again dressed in green 2.
As per the changes in Season yield also get changed, because the response of yield depends on which seasons receive additional water and which seasons receive less water. Increases in spring precipitation led to growth reductions, whereas increases in summer precipitation led to increases in growth 3. Many plants do not live through the winter. Each spring a new plant grows from the little seed. Very soon we see it blossom. When it is fall, and the cooler weather drives away the summer, the seeds are ripe, and the first frosts kill the mother plant. In warm countries, plants sleep during the dry season. If summer is the dry season, then they grow in the winter. Such a country is green and beautiful in the winter.
In summer, the ground becomes dry, and the whole world seems dead. Every plant and every animal is suited to the place in which you find it living. Plants which is used to having a great deal of water will not live where there is little water Plants can respond to the change of season by losing their leaves, flowering, or breaking dormancy. By detecting the differences in day length, plant constituents show seasonal changes. In the autumn shortened length of the day leaves changes color.
FIG. 1: STOMATA ARE OPENINGS ON THE BOTTOM OF LEAVES THAT LET IN CARBON DIOXIDE AND CLOSE DURING THE NIGHT
FIG. 2: MORNING GLORY FLOWERS CLOSE AT NIGHT
During the winter, certain flowers bloom, like poinsettias. In the spring, leaves start to grow because of the winter buds on the trees break open. Photoperiod means plants determine the time of year by the length of daylight. During winter days, tilt of the earth occurs, so there are less hours of light than during summer days. So that, it starts getting dark very early in the evening and then stays dark the next morning in the winter.
FIG. 3: IN WINTER MANY TREES LOSE THEIR LEAVES TO CONSERVE WATER
FIG. 4: SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLANTS
It will be bright early in the morning, and the sun will not set until late that night in the summer. Plants are able to sense the differences in day length with the help of light-sensitive chemicals present in them. Photoperiodism is the reaction of plants to the length of day and night or light and dark periods of the season. Plants sense there is less sunlight when the days start to get shorter in the fall. So, in this season plant gets stimulated, and it transmits messages to the leaves to change colors and fall. Herbs sense the length of night, a dark period, as a signal to flower. Each plant has a different photoperiod or night length. The plant gets flowers when it senses the appropriate length of darkness, occurs because of the appropriate length of daylight. Long-day or short-day plants are two classes of flowering plants. As the length of daylight exceeds the necessary photoperiod, long-day plants get a flower, e.g., carnations, clover, lettuce, wheat, and turnips. As the daylight length is shorter than the necessary photoperiod, short-day plants get a flower, e.g., Cotton, rice, and sugar cane. Plant species influence ecosystem processes. Slope position affects soil PO4- and microbial P. Plant litter chemistry helps to gain a mechanistic study of plant species effects on ecosystems.
TABLE 1: DATA OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AND EFFECT OF SEASONAL VARIATION ON PHYTOCHEMICALS
|S. no.||Medicinal plant||Content evaluated||Season optimized|
|1||Eugenia uniflora leaves Myrtaceae||Spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide||Summer 4|
|2||Rosmarinus officinalis Rosmerry Lamiaceae||Rosmarinic and carnosic acids||Summer 5|
|3||Lycopersicum esculentum Mill Solanaceae||Flavonoids||Autumn 6|
|4||Melittis melissophyllum L. (Lamiaceae).||Flavonoid||Autumn 7|
|5||Glycyrriza glabra Liquorice Leguminosae||liquiritin and glycyrrhizin||Summer 8|
|6||Glycyrriza glabra Liquorice Leguminosae||Glabridin and glabrene||Winter 8|
|7||Chelidonium majus L. Papaveraceae
|Total phenolic content,
polyphenols and flavonoid
|8||Bacopa monneiri Plantaginaceae||Bacoside-A||Rainy 10|
|9||St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) Hypericaceae||Hypericin and pseudohypericin||Summer 11|
|10||Mentha longifolia Labiatae||Alkaloid, flavonoid and phenolic contents.||Winter 12|
|11||Adhatoda vasica Vasaka Acanthaceae||Flavonoids||Winter 13|
|12||Camellia sinensis Theaceae||Total phenolics||Rainy 14|
|13||E. camaldulensis and E. cinerea Myrtaceae||Camellin||Summer 14|
|14||Origanum cyrenaicum (Labiatae)||Monoterpenes hydrocarbon oxygenated sesquiterpene hydrocarbon||Spring 15|
|15||Apis mellifera (Apidae)||Phenolic||Winter 15|
|16||Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae)||Flavonoids||Winter 16|
|17||Convolvulus microphyllus (Convolvulaceae)||Chlorophyll, proline, alkaloids & phenols||Winter 17|
|18||Datura metel (Solanaceae)||Isofraxidin, Scopatone||Rainy 17|
|19||Withania somnifera (Solanaceae)||Withanin||Rainy 17|
|20||Ipomoea pes Caprae (Convolvulaceae)||Total phenolic content flavonoids||Summer 18|
|21||Mellitus melissophyllum (Lamiaceae)||Flavonoid||Spring 19|
|22||Parkia biglobosa (Mimisaceae)||Flavonoids||Spring 20|
|23||Phyllanthus amarus (Lamiaceae)||Total alkaloids, flavonoids||Summer 21|
|24||Prunus amygdalus (Rosaceae)||Total phenolic content||Summer 22|
|25||Pseudobombax marginatum (Bombacaceae)||Total polyphenols||Winter 22|
|26||Guapira graciliflora (Nyctaginaceae)||Total polyphenols, flavonoids||Summer 22|
|27||Aegle marmelos Rutaceae||Flavonoids||Winter 22|
|28||Syzygium cummini Myrtaceae||Tannins, Gallitanins||Rainy 23|
|29||Alstonia scholaris Apocynaceae||Essential oil||Winter 23|
|30||Thymus vulgaris L. Thymol Lamiaceae||Essential oil, P-cymene||Summer2 4|
|31||Origanum syriacum Lamiaceae||Essential oil,||Spring 24|
|32||Mentha canadensis Lamiaceae||Menthol||Winter 24|
|33||Melissa officinalis Lamiaceae||Essential oil||Summer 25|
|34||Thymus serpyllum L Lamiaceae||Essential oil||Summer 26|
|35||Pelargonium graveolens Geraniaceae||Essential oil||Winter 27|
|36||Ocimum basilicum basil Lamiaceae||Essential oil||Winter 28|
|37||Eucalyptus globulus Myrtaceae||Volatile oil||Summer 28|
|38||Achillea filipendulina (Asteraceae)||Volatile oil||Summer 29|
|39||Artemisia annua (Asteraceae)||Volatile oil||Autumn30|
|40||Cistus monspeliensi (Cistaceae)||Essential oil||Spring 31|
|41||Clinopodium pulegium (Lamiaceae)||Essential oil||Summer 32|
|42||Mentha longifolia (Lamiaceae)||Volatile oil||Summer 33|
|43||Micromeria fruticosa (Lamiaceae)||Limonene, menthone, menthol||Summer 34|
|44||Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae)||Volatile oil||Spring 34|
|45||Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae)||Volatile oil||Summer 35|
|46||Pistacia atlantica (Anacardiaceae)||Volatile oil||Spring 36|
|47||Plectranthus amboinicus (Lamiaceae)||Essential oil||Spring 37|
|48||Santolina chamecyparissus (Asteraceae)||Limonene, pinene, caryophylline oxide||Summer 38|
|49||Sclerocerya birrea (Anacardiaceae)||Volatile oil||August 39|
|50||Thymbra spicata (Labiatae)||Volatile oil||Summer 40|
|51||Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae)||Volatile oil||Winter 41|
|52||Valeriana jatamansi (Caprifoliaceae)||Volatile oil||Autumn 42|
|53||Ocimum sanctu (Lamiaceae)||Volatile oil||Rainy 43|
|54||Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae)||Essential oil||Summer 44|
|55||Lauris nobilis (Lauraceae)||Essential oil||Summer 44|
|56||Micromeria fruticosa Lamiaceae||Essential oil||Summer 44|
|57||Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae||Essential Oil||Summer 45|
TABLE 2: DATA OF MEDICINAL PLANTS AND EFFECT OF SEASONAL VARIATION ON PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
|S. no.||Name of plant||Activity determined||Season optimized|
|1||Glycyrrhiza glabra liquorice extracts Fabaceae||Antioxidant and gastroprotective||Summer and Winter 8|
|2||Momordica charantia fruits. Cucurbitaceae,||Antidiabetic activity||Spring 46 season|
|3||Bellis perennis flowers Asteraceae||Antioxidant activity||Spring to autumn 47|
|4||Ocimum basilicum Lamiaceae||Antioxidant activity||Winter 48|
|5||Nothapodytes nimmoniana Bark Icacinaceae||Antioxidant potential||Winter 49|
|6||Ginkgo biloba Ginkgoaceae||Antioxidant activity||Autumn 50|
|7||Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae)||Antidiabetic Antineoplastic||Summer 51|
|8||Azadirachta indica Meliaceae||Antidiabetic||Winter 51|
|9||Aegle marmelos Rutaceae||Antidiabetic||Autumn 51|
|10||Adhatoda vasica Acanthaceae||Antidiabetic||Summer 51|
|11||Athrixia phylicoides (Asteraceae)||Antidiabetic Antioxidant||Winter and Summer 51|
|12||Baccharis dentate (Asteraceae)||Antioxidant||Summer and Winter 52|
|13||Combretum roxburghii (Combretaceae)||Antioxidant||Winter and spring 53|
|14||Melilotus indicus (Fabaceae)||Antioxidant activity||Autumn 53|
|15||Myrtus communis (Myrtaceae)||Antioxidant||Rainy 54|
|16||Pistacia lentiscus L (Anacardiaceae)||Antioxidant||Rainy 54|
|17||Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae)||Antimicrobial||Winter 55|
|18||Rhoicissus tridentate (Vitaceae)||Uterotonic||Summer and Autumn 56|
|19||Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae)||Antioxidant activity||Winter 57|
|20||Salvia sclarea (Lamiaceae)||Antioxidant||Summer 57|
|21||Syzygium cummini Myrtaceae||Antidiabetic||Rainy 58|
|22||Tulbaghia violacea (Alliaceae)||Antibacterial||Winter and Autumn 58|
|23||Hypoxis hemerocallidea (Hypoxidaceae)||Antibacterial||Winter and Autumn 58|
|24||Drimia robusta (Hycinthaceae)||Antibacterial||Winter and Autumn 58|
|25||Merwilla plumbea (Hyacinthaceae)||Antibacterial||Winter and Autumn 58|
|26||Zizyphus spina christi (Rhamnaceae)||Anti-hyperglycaemic||Summer 58|
Reasons of High Yield:
- In winter, carbon assimilation and biomass production increasing lead to high yield.
- During winter, most of the herbs complete their life cycle and start drying up. As are the end products of metabolic reactions in drying shoots. They are naturally higher at this stage. Results in maximum energy during the winter season. g., fats and proteins.
- Long photoperiods increased the content of essential oils in the foliage and of phenolic monoterpenes in the oil.
- High humidity, temperature and availability of large amount of water during monsoon period which are favourable conditions for the growth.
- Terpenoid compounds (essential oils) and secondary metabolites secreted by plants during summer drought as protecting agents to physical and chemical stress on plant.
- Phenolic compounds increase with increasing light intensity.
- Adequate sunlight gives a high yield.
Reasons for Low Yield:
- During summer, plant phytoconstituents subjected to thermal (atmospheric as well as soil) and moisture stresses ended up producing low biomass yield because of a reduction in levels of photosynthesis and damaging effects of solarisation.
- The setting of seeds during autumn that may deteriorate the oil glands leads to low yield.
- Micro-environment (sun or shade) in which the plant is growing is important.
- Plant ontogeny and environmental regulation, seasonal variations affect genetic expression for oil production in plants.
- The environmental conditions of temperature and precipitation probably affected the volatile oil content.
- The high temperature in summer leads to partial evaporation of some constituents of oil.
- Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds can be effectively induced by sunlight.
- Low-temperature stress, as well as the maturity of the plants, might indicate some sort of nutritional stress in this season or a complex interaction between soil and environment.
- The lower contents of phenolic compounds in winter could be due to decreased active biosynthesis during cooler weather
- At the beginning of the flowering stage, there is a lack of phytoconcentration, which again increases when the plant begins with the formation of fruit.
CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: Nil
- Thomas E, Vandebroek I, Goetghbeur P, Sabino S, Susana A and Patrick VD: The relationship between plant use and plant diversity in the Bolivian Andes, with special reference to medicinal plant use. Human Ecol 2008; 36(6): 861-79.
- Szakiel A, Pączkowski C and Henry M: Influence of environmental abiotic factors on the content of saponins in plants. Phytochemistry Reviews 2011; 10(4): 471-91.
- Santos VMCS, MAS, Bizzo H and Deschamps C: Seasonal Variation of vegetative growth, essential oil yield and composition of menthol Mint genotypes at Southern brazil. Biosci J 2012; 28(5): 790-98.
- Ncube B, Finnie JF and Staden JF: Seasonal variation in and phytochemical properties of frequently used medicinal plants from India J Bot 2011; 77(2): 387-96.
- Luis JC and Johnson CB: Seasonal variations of Rosmarinic and Carnosic acids in rosemary extracts. The Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 2005; 3(1): 106-12.
- Slimestad R and Verheul B: Review of Flavonoids and other phenolics from fruits of different tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) Cultivars. J Sci Food Agric 2009; 89: 1255-70.
- Pietraszek ES and Pietraszek J: Seasonal changes of flavonoid content in Melittis melissophyllum (Lamiaceae). Chem Bio Div 2014; 11(4): 562-70.
- Cheel J, Tůmová L and Areche C: Variations in the chemical profile and biological activities of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra), as influenced by harvest times. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 2013; 35(4): 1337-49.
- Jakovljević ZD, Stanković MS and Topuzović DM: Seasonal Variability of Chelidonium majus secondary metabolites content and antioxidant activity. Excli J 2013; 12: 260-68.
- Phrompittayarat W, Jetiyanon K and Songklanakarin SWA: Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri. J Sci Technol 2011; 3(2): 193-99.
- Gadzovska S, Maury S, Delaunay A and Spasenoski M: The influence of salicylic acid elicitation of shoots, callus, and cell suspension cultures on production of naphtodianthrones and phenylpropanoids in Hypericum perforatum Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture (PCTOC) 2013; 113(1): 25-39.
- Aqeel MS, Ashraf AM and Ashraf MHMY: Seasonal variation in some medicinal and biochemical ingredients in Mentha longifolia. Pakistan Journal of Botany 2011; 43: 69-77.
- Sandeep P, Ritu O, Gurpreet K, Kunal N, Shilpi A and Kanaya LD: Estimation of Seasonal Variation of two major Pyrrolo (2,1-b) Quinazoline Alkaloids of Adhatoda vasica by HPLC. Nat Prod J 2013; 3(1): 30-34(5).
- Anesini C, Ferraro GE and Filip R: Total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of commercially available tea (Camellia sinensis) in Argentina. J Agric Food Chem 2008; 56(19): 9225-29.
- Ozlem T, Sengul K and Emel D: An annual variation in essential oil composition of Origanum syriacum from southeast Anatolia of Turkey. J Med Plant Res 2010; 4(11): 1059-64.
- Mir AQ, Yazdani T, Ahmad S and Yunus M: Total flavonoids and phenolics in Catharanthus roseus and Ocimum sanctum L. as biomarkers of urban auto pollution. Caspian J Env Sci 2009; 7 (1): 9-16.
- Kale VS: Variable rates of primary and secondary metabolites during different seasons and physiological stages in Convolvulus, Withania and Datura. Asian J Exp Biol Sci Spl 2010: 50-53.
- Deepanjan B, Alok KH, Chakraborti S, Ray J, Mukherjee A and Mukherjee B: Variation in total phenolic content, flavonoid and radical scavenging activity of Ipomoea-pes Caprae with respect to harvest time and location. Indian J Geo-marine Sci 2013; 42(1): 106-09.
- Chaves TP, Cleildo P, Santana CP, Véras G, Brandão DO and Felismino DC: Seasonal variation in the production of secondary metabolites and antimicrobial activity of two plant species used in Indian traditional medicine. J Biotechnol 2013; 12(8): 847-53.
- Kone HM, Lompo M, Kini F, Asimi S, Guissou IP and Nacoulma O: Evaluation of flavonoids and total phenolic contents of stem bark and leaves of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth (Mimosaceae) free radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Research Journal of Medical Sciences 2009; 3(2): 70-74.
- Gehlot M and Kasera PK: Variability in primary and secondary metabolites during different seasons in Phyllanthus amarus. Indian J Plant Physiol 2013; 18(2): 169-71.
- Sivaci A and Duman S: Evaluation of Seasonal Antioxidant activity and total Phenolic Compounds in Stem and Leaves of some almond (Prunus amygdalus) varieties. Biol Res 2014; 47: 9.
- Jagetia GC and Baliga MS: The effect of seasonal variation on the antineoplastic activity of Alstonia scholaris Br. in He La cells. J Ethanopharmacol 2005; 6(1-2): 37-42.
- Hussain AI, Anwar F, Nigam PS, Ashraf M and Gilani AH: Seasonal variation in content, chemical composition and antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of essential oils from four Mentha species. J Sci Food Agr 2010; 90(11): 1827-36.
- Saeb K and Gholamrezaee S: Variation of essential oil composition of Melissa officinalis leaves during different stages of plant growth. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012; 2(2): 547-49.
- Verma RS, Verma RK, Chauhan A and Yadav AK: Seasonal variation in essential oil content and composition of Thyme, Thymus serpyllum Cultivated in Uttarakhand Hills Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2011; 73(2): 233-35.
- Kritika M, Jai M and Vinod G: Effect of geographical and seasonal variation on the oil yield and geraniol content of Pelargonium graveolens. International Journal of Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical Research 2013; 3(3): 45-50.
- El-Zalabani SM, Koheil MM, Meselhy KM, El-Gizawy HA and Sleem AA: 22/24 Effect of Seasonal variation on Composition and Bioactivities of the essential oil of Eucalyptus citridora Hook grown in Egypt. Egypt Soc Biotechnol 2013; 24.
- Zeinali E and Rahimmalek M: Effect of Seasonal Variation on essential oil yield, and morpho-physiological properties of Achillea filipendulina J Herbal Drugs 2013; 3(4): 199-08.
- Omer EA, Hussein A, Hendawy SF, El-din E, Azza A and ElGendy AG: effect of soil type and seasonal variation on growth, yield, essential oil and artemisinin content of Artemisia annua Int Res J Horticulture 2013; 1(1): 15- 27.
- Angelopoulou D, Dermetzos C and Perdetzoglou D: Diurnal and seasonal variation of the essential oil labdanes and clerodanes from Cistus monspeliensis leaves. Biochem Syst Ecol 2002; 30(3): 189-03.
- Slavkovska V, Zlatković B, Bräuchler C, Stojanović D, Tzakou O and Couladis M: Variations of essential oil characteristics of Clinopodium pulegium (Lamiaceae) depending on phenological stage. Bot Serb 2013; 37(2): 97- 104.
- Ahmad I, Ahmad MSA, Ashraf M, Hussain M and Ashraf MY: Seasonal variation in some medicinal and biochemical ingredients in Mentha longifolia. Huds Pak J Bot 2011; 43: 69-77.
- Hussain AI, Anwar F, Sherazi STH and Przybylski R: Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations. J Food Chem 2008; 108(3): 986-95.
- Mittal K, Malik J and Gautam V: Effect of Geographical and Seasonal Variation on the oil yield and geraniol content of Pelargonium graveolens. Int J Recent Adv Pharm Res 2013; 3(3): 45-50.
- Gourine N, Yousfi M, Bombarda I, Nadjemi B and Gaydou E: Seasonal variation of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil from Pistacia atlantica leaves. J Oil Fat Ind 2010; 87: 157-66.
- El-hawary SS, El-sofany RH, Abdel-Monem AR, Ashour RS and Sleem AA: Seasonal variation in the composition of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng essential oil and its biological activities. J Essent Oils Nat Prod 2013; 1(2): 11-18.
- Elsharkawy ER: Antitcancer effect and Seasonal variation in oil constituents of Santolina chamaecyparissus. Chem Mater Res 2014; 6(3): 85-91.
- Kpoviessi DSS, Gbaguidi FA, Cosme K, Agbani P, Ladekan EY and Sinsin B: Chemical composition and seasonal variation of essential oil of Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochstsubsp birrea leaves from Benin. J Med Plants Res 2011; 5(18): 4640-46.
- Memet I, Muzaffer K, Alpaslan KD and Saliha K: Effect of harvest time on essential oil composition of Thymbra spicata L. growing in flora of Adiyaman. Adv Environ Biol 2011; 5: 356-58.
- Mcgimpsey JA, Douglas MH, Vanklink JW, Beauregard DA and Perry NB: Seasonal variation in essential oil yield and composition from naturalized Thymus vulgaris in New Zealand. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 1994; 9(6): 347-52.
- Singh RD, Chand G, Ramjeelal, Meena, Sharma B and Singh B: Seasonal variation of bioactive components in Valeriana jatamansi from Himachal Pradesh, India. Ind Crop Prod 2010; 32(3): 292-96.
- Fischer R, Nitzan N and Chaimovitsh D: variation in essential oil composition within individual leaves of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) Is more affected by leaf position than by leaf age. J Agric Food Chem 2011; 59(9): 4913-22.
- Mohammad A, Youssef B, Maha A, Abdolla E, Mohammad T and Fawaz E: Chemical composition and seasonal variation of the essential oil of Azadirachta indica, Lauris nobilis, Micromeria fruticosa. J Nat Prod 2011; 4: 147-49.
- Marzoukia H, Elaissib A, Khaldic A, Bouzidd S, Falconierie D and Marongiu B: Seasonal and geographical variation of Laurus nobilis essential oil from Tunisia. The Open Nat Prod J 2009; 2: 86-91.
- Kolawole OT and Ayankunle AA: Seasonal variation in the anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Momordica charantia fruit extract in rats. European J Med Plants 2012; 2 (2); 177.
- Siatka T and Kasparova M: Seasonal variation in total phenolic and flavonoid contents and DPPH scavenging activity of Bellis perennis flowers. Molecules 2010; 15: 9450-61.
- Freire CM, Marques MO, Costa M: Effects of seasonal variation on the Central Nervous System activity of Ocimum gratissimum essential oil. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 105:1-2.
- Sandeep RP, Mansingraj SN, Nilesh VP, Rajaram PP and Ghansham BD: Seasonal discrepancy in phenolic content and antioxidant properties from bark of nothapodytes nimmoniana. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2010; 1(3): 1-17.
- Sati P, Pandey A, Rawat S and Rani A: Phytochemicals and antioxidants in leaf extracts of Ginkgo biloba with reference to location, seasonal variation and solvent system. J Pharm Res 2013; 7 (9): 804-09.
- Sartor T, Xavier VB, Falcao MA, Mondin CA and Dos Santos MA: Seasonal changes in phenolic compounds and in the biological activities of some alkaloids G.M. Barroso. Ind Crop Prod 2013; 32: 35-43.
- Sartor T, Xavier VB, Falcao MA, Mondin CA and Dos Santos MA: Seasonal changes in phenolic compounds and in the biological activities of Baccharis dentata (Vell.) G.M. Barroso. Ind Crop Prod 2013; 51: 355-59.
- Bhatnagar S, Saho S, Mohapatra AK and Behera DR: Phytochemical analysis, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic activity of medicinal plant Combretum roxburghii. International Journal of Drug Development and Research 2012; 4(1): 193-02.
- Gardeli C, Vassiliki P, Athanasios M, Kibouris T and Komaitis M: Essential oil composition of Pistacia lentiscus and Myrtus communis L. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of methanolic extracts. Food Chem 2008; 107(3): 1120-30.
- DaSilva EBP, Soares MG, Mariane B and Marcelo A: The seasonal variation of the chemical composition of essential oils from Porcelia macrocarpa. Molecules 2013; 18: 13574-87.
- Katsoulis LC, Veale DJ and Havlik I: Seasonal variation in Uterotonic activity of Rhoicissus tridentate S Afr Med J 2002; 92(5): 375-7.
- Tulukcu E, Sagdic O, Albayrak S, Ekisi L and Yatim H: Effect of Collection Time on Biological activity of Salvia salarea. J of Applied Bot and Food Qua 2009; 83: 44-49.
- Michel CG, Nasseem DI and Ismail MF: Antidiabetic activity and stability study of the formulated leaf extract of Zizyphus spina Christi willid with the influence of seasonal variation. J Ethanopharmacol 2011; 133: 53-62.
How to cite this article:
Palshikar G, Ambavade S and Shanmugapandiyan P: A review on effect of seasonal variation on phytochemicals of medicinal plants. Int J Pharmacognosy 2019; 6(12): 374-81. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.6(12).374-81.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
G. Palshikar *, S. Ambavade and P. Shanmugapandiyan
JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy, Hadapsar, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
11 December 2019
21 December 2019
23 December 2019
31 December 2019