QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF TOTAL PHENOLICS AND FLAVONOIDS IN SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA LEAVESHTML Full Text
QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF TOTAL PHENOLICS AND FLAVONOIDS IN SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA LEAVES
Shubhangi Kshirsagar * 1, Kirti Sahu 2, Sofiya Moris 3 and Suchita Gokhale 1
Ideal College of Pharmacy and Research 1, Kalyan, Thane - 421306, Maharashtra, India.
Government College of Pharmacy 2, Amravati - 444601, Maharashtra, India.
D. D. Vispute College of Pharmacy 3, Panvel - 410206, Maharashtra, India.
ABSTRACT: Soymida febrifuga is belonging to family Meliaceae. The bark, fruit, and leaves contain important constituents like Quercetin-3-O-L-rhamnoside, 3-O-rutinoside, lupeol, sitosterol, methyl angolensate, deoxyandirobin. The plant has found to be ethnobotanically important. The bark is acrid; refrigerant, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, laxative; good for sore throat; removes “vata “ cures “tridosha” fevers, cough, asthma; removes blood impurities; good for ulcers, leprosy, dysentery (Ayurveda). The bark is the bowels and useful in fevers in fevers (Yunani). The bark is astringent, tonic and antiperiodic. In intermittent fevers and general debility, in the advanced stages of dysentery, in diarrhoea, and other cases requiring the use of astringents, it has been used with success. The decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles, vaginal infections, and enemas. The present study revealed the estimations of total phenolics and flavonoids were carried out according to standard procedure. Estimation of total phenolic: (Folin-Ciocalteu method) and aluminium chloride colorimetric method was used for flavonoids determination, determination of total phenolics and flavonoids were carried out results methanol extract contains 21.7%, water 48.2% and total aqueous 32.23% w/w of and methanol contains 24.27%, water 42.86% and total aqueous 26.38% respectively.
Soymida febrifuga, Phenolic, Flavonoids
INTRODUCTION: Soymida febrifuga A. Juss is a tall tree. Leaves 23-45 cm long, crowded towards the ends of the branches; leaflets 3-6 pairs, opposite, 5-11.3 by 2.5-6.3 cm, elliptic or oblong, obtuse, glabrous penninerved, the nerves numerous and conspicuous beneath, base rounded, inequilateral, the lower side generally extending further down the petiolule than the upper; petiolules 3-6 mm long 1-4.
Flowers in large terminal or axillary divaricately branched panicles often equaling the leaves, the branches of the panicle alternate; pedicels very short; bracts minute, triangular, acute. Sepals 5, rotund, the margins membranous, slightly lacerate.
Petals 5, obovate, 6 mm. long, clawed, often notched at the apex. Staminal tube about half as long as the petals, slightly urceolate; anthers attached by the middle of the back. Ovary glabrous; stigma, discoid, 1.5 mm dm, 5 - lobed, the lobes are radiating to the center. Capsules 2.5-6.3 cm long, obovoid, 5-celled, 5-valved. Seeds winged. Distribution-Dry forests of the W. peninsula, extending northwards to merwara, the Mirzapur hills and chota Nagpur, Ceylon 5-10.
Kingdom : Plantae
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta
Division : Magnolioplyto
Super division : Spermatophyta
Class : Mgnoliopsida
Subclass : Rosidae
Family : Meliaceae
Genus : Soymida
Species : febrifuge
Chemical Constituents: 11-15
Bark: Bark contains bitter substances. Lupeol, sitosterol, methyl angolensate, deoxyandirobin from wood bark.
Leaves: Quercetin- 3- O- L- rhamnoside, 3- O-rutinoside from leaves.
Fruits: Three tetratriterpenoids from fruits of soymida febrifuga epoxyfebrinin B, 14, 15- dihydroepoxyfebrinin B, febrinolide.
Properties and Uses: 16-24 The bark is acrid; refrigerant, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, laxative; good for sore throat; removes “vata” cures “tridosha” fevers, cough, asthma; removes blood impurities; good for ulcers, leprosy, dysentery (Ayurveda). The bark is the bowels and useful in fevers in fevers (Yunani). The bark is astringent, tonic and antiperiodic. In intermittent fevers and general debility, in the advanced stages of dysentery, in diarrhea, and other cases requiring the use of astringents, it has been used with success. The decoction forms a good substitute for oak-bark and is well adapted for gargles, vaginal infections, and enemas.
The bark of this tree is said to be a bitter tonic and a good anti-malarial like cinchona. A decoction of the bark 1 in 20 was given in one-ounce doses three times a day in cases of malarial fever and found to be beneficial. The action was not only very slow but very inferior to that of the alkaloids of cinchona (Koman).
Plant Material and Extraction: 25-33
Plant Material: Fresh leaves of Soymida febrifuga collected in August to September from Amravati District, Maharashtra. A voucher specimen was botanically authentified by Mrs. P. Y. Bhogaonkar head Botany Department, Vidarbha Institute of Science and Humanities College Amravati & deposited in the herbarium. The fresh leaves were dried in a hot air oven for 24 h at 55 ºC under shed & powder in a mixture grinder. The powder sieved (40 mesh) leaves packed in a paper bags and stored in airtight container until use.
Extraction was carried out by Solvent Extraction: 50 gm of dry powder was extracted with 200 ml of solvent by Soxhlet for 20 cycles for pet. ether, chloroform, methanol, and water. And also the total aqueous extract was obtained.
Method-Estimation of Phenolic Constituent: Estimation of Total Phenolic: (Folin-Ciocalteu Method) 32-44.
Preparation of Standard Calibration Curve: 1 ml aliquots of 50 - 500 µg / ml ethanolic gallic acid solution were mixed with 5 ml of Folin- Ciocalteu reagent (Ten-fold diluted) and 4 ml of sodium carbonate (7.5%). The absorbance was read after 30 min at 765 nm.
Estimation of Total Phenolic in Extracts: 1 ml of each extract (50 mg / 100 ml) was mixed with the same reagent as performed above. The absorbance was read after 30 min at 765 nm for determination of phenolic. All determination was performed in triplicate. Total content (%) of phenolic compound in plant different extracts was calculated as Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)
GAE = [(C × V) / M] × 100
C = the conc. of Gallic acid established from calibration curve mg/ml, V = Volume of extract (ml), M = the weight of dried plant extract (mg)
Estimation of Total Flavonoid Content: Aluminium chloride colorimetric method was used for flavonoids determination (charg et al., 2002). Each plant extracts (0.5 ml of 1:10 g/ml) in methanol were separately mixed with 1.5ml of methanol, 0.1 ml of 10% aluminum chloride 0.1 ml of 1 m Potassium acetate and 2.8 ml of distilled water.
It remained at room temperature for 30 min; the absorbance of the reaction mixture was measured at 415 nm with a UV/visible spectrophotometer. The calibration curve was prepared by preparing a quercetin solution at concentration 20 to 100 µg/ml in methanol.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Estimations of various phytoconstituents were carried out according to standard procedure. Determination of total phenolics and flavonoids were carried out results are shown in Table 1, 2 and 3, 4 respectively 45-53.
TABLE 1: STANDARD CURVE OF GALLIC ACID AT 765 nm
(mg / ml)
(µg / ml)
GRAPH 1: CALIBRATION CURVE OF GALLIC ACID
TABLE 2: RESULTS OF TOTAL PHENOLICS CONTENT (%) IN EACH EXTRACT
|% Content (GAE)||Mean (%)
|ME||0.1077||21.54||21.7 ± 0.16|
|WR||0.2414||48.28||48.2 ± 0.44|
|TA||0.1644||32.88||32.23 ± 0.58|
GRAPH 2: CALIBRATION CURVE OF QUERCETIN
TABLE 3: STANDARD CURVE OF QUERCETIN AT 415 nm
(mg / ml)
(µg / ml)
TABLE 4: RESULTS OF FLAVONOID CONTENT (%) IN EACH EXTRACT
|Extract||Abs. at 765 nm||% Content (GAE)||Mean (%) ± SD|
CONCLUSION: Quantitative estimation for phenolics results that methanol extract contains 21.7%, water 48.2% and total aqueous 32.23% w/w of phenols by Folin-ciocalteu method. Foe steroids, pet. ether extract contains 22.46 and chloroform 23.97% steroids results obtained by Liebermann-Burchard color reaction. Aluminium chloride colorimetric method was used for estimation of flavonoids the results indicate that methanol contains 24.27%, water 42.86%, and total aqueous 26.38% flavonoids.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The author sincerely thanks Dr. Prabha Bhogaonkar, HOD Botany, VMV College Amravati for her valuable guidance and authentication of the plant.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Kshirsagar S, Sahu K, Moris S and Gokhale S: Quantitative estimation of total phenolics and flavonoids in Soymida febrifuga leaves. Int J Pharmacognosy 2018; 5(3): 182-85. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.5(3).182-85.
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S. Kshirsagar *, K. Sahu, S. Moris and S. Gokhale
Ideal College of Pharmacy and Research, Kalyan, Thane, Maharashtra, India.
10 October 2017
12 November 2017
18 November 2017
01 March 2018