PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF THREE PIPER SPECIES: AN UPDATEAbstract
In this review, the current knowledge on the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Piper betle (betel), Piper sarmentosum (wild pepper) and Piper caninum (wild betel) is updated with some description of their botany and uses. Leaves of P. betle contain polyphenols, alkaloids, and essential oils, and display broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, substantial quorum sensing inhibition and tyrosinase enhancement activity. They also possess anti-malarial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, hypoglycaemic, neuro-protective and hepatoprotective properties. Leaves of P. sarmentosum contain phenylpropanoids, phenylpropanoyl amides, dihydroxyflavone, and essential oils. Wild pepper displays a wide array of pharmacological properties including antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-amoebic, anti-dengue, anti-tuberculosis, cytotoxic, antiplasmodial, neuromuscular-blocking, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, anti-atherosclerosis and anti-osteoporosis activities. Leaves of P. caninum contain phenolic compounds, alkaloids, and essential oils. Pharma-cological properties of wild betel include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, DNA-damaging, DNA strand-scission, and anticancer activities. All three Piper species reviewed possess pharmacological properties, which confer their traditional and contemporary uses as food and herbal medicine.
E. W. C. Chan * and S. K. Wong
Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
28 July 2014
21 August 2014
28 August 2014
01 September 2014