DESCRIPTION OF APIUM GRAVEOLENS (TUKHM KARAFS) IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE AND WESTERN PERSPECTIVE -AN APPRAISALHTML Full Text
DESCRIPTION OF APIUM GRAVEOLENS (TUKHM KARAFS) IN UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE AND WESTERN PERSPECTIVE -AN APPRAISAL
Nisar Ahmed 1, Sadique Husain * 1, Faizana Nasreen 1 and Md. Anzar Alam 2
Department of Ilmul Advia 1, AGUMC, Akkalkuwa - 425415, Maharashtra, India.
Department of Moalajat 2, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore - 560091, Karnataka, India.
ABSTRACT: Apium graveolens Linn. is an indigenous herb that belongs to the family of Apiaceae. In Unani System of Medicine, this plant is commonly known as Karafs, and it is used to treat numerous diseases (Sue mizaj Jigar, Zofe Isteha, Yarqan, Sudda Jigar, Wajaul mafasil, Simane mufrit, Sartan, Hisate Gurdah, Falij was Istirkha, Niqras, etc.). Various studies have revealed that Karafs plays a vital role in the prevention of cardiac problems, lowering serum glucose level and derangement occurs in the lipids, normalize the blood pressure and vigor the heart. There are some active chemical constituents documented such as apigenin, apiein, vitamins A and C which play antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. The whole plant is used for medicinal purposes. This article demonstrates morphological features, Unani description, active chemical constituents, Unani formulations, scientific reports, and appraisal of the therapeutic properties of this precious medicinal herb.
Karafs, Apium graveolens, Unani medicine, Celery
INTRODUCTION: Karafs is a member of the Apiaceae family (Umbelliferae) and known as celery 1, 2. There are four species which commonly used as medicinal purposes such as; Apium graveolens, Apium rapaceum, Apium secalinum and Apium smallege 3.
Celery is cultivated throughout the world since ancient times and many cultivars exist grown for the crisp leaf stalk, the fleshy root or the seeds 4. Celery is widely cultivated on temperate zones and native medicinal plant to Europe 5.
Species: graveolens 6, 7.
Synonymous of Karafs: Arabic- Phitra saleyaun, Karafs; Ayurveda- Ajmuda; Bengali- Ajmod; English- Celery; Gujarati- Bodiajmuda; Hindi-Ajmud and Karafs; Kanada -Selerina; Latin–Salahri; Marathi- Ajmuda; Persian- Tukhme Karafs, Karsab; Romi- Batarakhiyun Folk Ajmuda; Sanskrit- Mayauri; Seriyani-Karafsa; Sindhi-Diljan; Tamil Celery-keerai; Unani- Karafs; Urdu -Tukhme karafs, Ajmod 8.
Mizaj (Temperament): Haar 10 Yabis 10, Haar 10 Yabis 20, Haar 20 Yabis 20, Har 9, 10.
Afal (Actions): Muhallil, analgesic, emmena-gogue, lithotripsic, diaphoretic, diauretic, abortificient 11-15.
Istemalat (Therapeutic Uses): Gout, rheumatism, amenorrhea, lba, inflammation, edema, renal stone, Amraze Barid wa Amraze balghamin 16, 17.
Muzarrat (Contraindicated): Epilepsy, pregnant mother, lactating mothers, peoples of hot temperament 18.
Musleh (Corrective): Mastaghi and anisoon 19.
Badal (Substitute): Ajwain, Ajwain Khurasani 20.
Miqdare Khoraak (Doses): Root of Karafs 5-7 masha, Tukhm 12, 21.
Chemical Constituents: Apium graveolens (celery) contained various chemical constituents such as; carbohydrates, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, phenols, furocoumarins, volatile oils, sesquiterpene alcohols, fatty acids and a wide range of trace elements 22. Isoimperatorin, isoquercitrin, linoleic acid, magnesium, p-cymene, phosphorus, guaiacol, silicon. Terpinene-4-ol, 3-N-butyl-phthalide, umbelliferone, Vitamin A, C, B. apiol, zinc. Volatile oil, containing dlimonene, with a-selinene, santalol, a and b eudesmol, dihydrocarvone. Phthalides, ligustilide, sedanolide, and sedanenolide. bergapten, isopimpinellin, apiumoside and celeroside, 3-butyl-4, 5-dihydrophthalide, coumarins (seselin, osthenol, apigravin, celerin). The essential oil contains deltalimonene, various sesquiterpene. Celery is rich in betacarotene and folic acid 5, 23-28.
Murakkabat (Unani Formulations): Jawarish Zarooni Sada, Majoon-e-Dabeed-ul-Ward, Majoon-e-Jograj Gugal, Majoon-e-Nankhwah, Majoon-e-Buqrat, Majoon-e-Rewand, Banadiq-ul- Buzoor, Sufoof-e- Mohazzil, sikanjabeen bazoori moatadil 29, 30.
Hepatoprotective Activity: It is reported that Karafs (celery) leaves exhibit hepatoprotective effect on APAP induced toxicity in a freshwater fish, Pangasius sutchi 31. Another study reported that methanolic extracts of A. graveolens showed hepatoprotective activity when compared with standard drug silymarin 32. It is also reported that methanolic extract of Tukhme Karafs showed hepatoprotective activity in rats against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity 33.
Hypolipidemic Activity: It is reported that ethanolic extract of Apium graveolens revealed hypolipidemic effects in adult male albino rats 34. Leaves of Karafs showed a hypolipidemic effect in diabetic rats 35. Another study revealed that ethanolic extract of Apium graveolens (celery seeds) showed antidyslipidemic activity against ritonavir induced dyslipidemia in mice 36. Dianat et al., reported that Celery leaf extract reduces systolic BP, cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and VLDL in an animal model of fructose-induced hypertension 37.
Antioxidant Activity: One study revealed that n-butanol extract of celery (Apium graveolens) seeds ameliorating the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats 38. Sameh et al., reported that methanol and acetone extracts of Apium graveolens have shown antioxidant activity 39.
Anti-Depressant Activity: Desu et al., reported that methanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds possessed significant antidepressant activity in animal models at the dose of 200 mg /Kg when compared with standard drug Imipramine at the dose of 20 mg/kg 40.
Spermatogenesis Activity: It is reported that aqueous extract of celery (Apium graveolens L.) leaves showed spermatogenesis activity male rats at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight for 30 days 41.
Anti-hyperuricemic Activity: It is reported that Bekh Karafs (Apium graveolens) showed anti-hyperuricemic activity at the dose of 10 gm once a day for 45 days in human subjects when compared with standard drug allopurinol 100 mg thrice a day for 45 days. It was found that the test drug showed more significant 42.
CONCLUSION: Apium graveolens has an extensive range of medicinal uses and can be used either as mufrad or murakkab to treat a different disease. There are various chemical constituents have been reported currently. Their pharma-cological actions are still unknown today. Unani Scholars described its uses by their clinical knowledge. To explore the hidden benefits by research, this type of review will be advantageous for the correlation between Unani literature and western perspective.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: I acknowledged all co-authors for providing literature and shaping this review article.
FUNDING AND CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Ahmed N, Husain S, Nasreen F and Alam MA: Description of Apium graveolens (Tukhm Karafs) In Unani system of medicine and Western perspective -An appraisal. Int J Pharmacognosy 2015; 2(11): 532-35. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.2(11).532-35.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
N. Ahmed, S. Husain *, F. Nasreen and M. A. Alam
Department of Ilmul Advia, AGUMC, Akkalkuwa, Maharashtra, India
01 September 2015
20 November 2015
29 November 2015
30 November 2016