COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA SEED EXTRACTS FROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHIESAbstract
Prophet Mohammed calls Nigella sativa seed as a medicine of blessings. Nigella sativa isan herbaceous plant and cultivated in Middle East, South East Asia and some part of the Europe. Nigella sativa seed has been in use in Middle East, South East Asia and some part of the Europe over 2000 years.Until date lot of research, studies are conducted to prove the therapeutic utility of Nigella sativa seeds. In these various studies, Nigella sativa seeds and its derivative showed therapeutic activity against allergy, cough, and diabetes, different types of cancer and skin infections. It is one of the widely used spices in the Middle East, South East Asia and some part of the Europe Nigella sativa seed is intensively studied for its chemical composition. It is reported to contain Thymoquinone, Nigellimine-N-oxide, Nigellicine, Nigellidine, Nigellone, Dithymoquinone, Thymohydroquinone, Thymol, Arvacrol, 6-methoxy-coumarin, 7-hydroxy-coumarin, Oxy-coumarin, Alpha-hedrin, Steryl-glucoside, Tannins, Flavinoids, Essential fatty acids, Essential amino acids, Ascorbic Acid, Iron and Calcium. The presence of these natural actives makes Nigella sativa seed as a super medicinal herb. The antimicrobial property of Nigella sativa seed is studied by former researchers are confined to the particular solvent and Nigella sativa seed of specific origin. There is practically no research available which compare anti-microbial potential of Nigella sativa seed from various geographies. This study was planned to test and compare the antimicrobial property of different solvent extracts of Nigella sativa seed from Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Turkey, Oman and India. The solvent used were n-hexane, methanol, and water. All these extracts were subjected to Zone of Inhibition on Mueller-Hinton agar using Kirby-Bauer Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Test Protocol against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Streptococcus mitisATCC 49456, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404. Result showed that methanol extract, n-hexane extract and water decoction of Nigella sativa seed had antimicrobial property against the Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans but not effective against Aspergillus brasiliensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans. This antimicrobial activity could be due to presence of constituents like Thymoquinone, Dithymoquinone, Thymohydroquinone, Thymol, Tannins etc in Nigella sativa extracts.Further it is observed that, antimicrobiological potential of Nigella sativa seed from India found to be far superior than other Nigella sativa seeds from other geographies.
Sudhir S.P. , Padma Deshmukh and H.N. Verma
Department of life sciences, Jaipur National University, Jaipur, India.
17 April, 2016
24 June, 2016
28 June, 2016
30 June, 2016