ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METAL IONS: ROLE OF CHITOSAN AND CELLULOSE FOR WATER TREATMENTHTML Full Text
ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METAL IONS: ROLE OF CHITOSAN AND CELLULOSE FOR WATER TREATMENT
Mudasir Ahmad, Shakeel Ahmed, Babu Lal Swami and Saiqa Ikram *
Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi - 110025, Delhi, India.
ABSTRACT: Rapid industrialization and modernization have introduced substantial amounts of toxic heavy metals into the aquatic and terrestrial environment which possess a severe threat to flora and fauna. In recent years, considerable research work has been done and is currently underway on some natural biopolymers and their modifications to remove different kinds of heavy metal ions. Chitosan and cellulose, both naturally occurring polysaccharides are the most effective adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. This review is aimed to provide relevant and recent information on the application of chitosan, cellulose and their respective derivatives for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions.
Chitosan, Cellulose, Heavy metals, Adsorption and water treatment
INTRODUCTION: Majority of industries and mainly the mining operations, tanneries, and metal plating play a vital role in contaminating the environment with heavy metals 1. Heavy metals particularly mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) have lethal effects on all forms of life even at low concentrations. Various methods including chemical precipitation 2, nanofiltration 3, solvent extraction 4, ion exchange 5, reverse osmosis 6, and adsorption 7 have been extensively studied in recent decade to decontaminate the polluted waters. Out of all these methods, adsorption is particularly attracting scientific focus mainly because of its high efficiency, low cost, easy handling and high availability of different adsorbents.
Over the past few years, several research studies have been conducted globally on natural polymers, and various methods have also been developed to enhance their metal binding 8 properties. The adsorption process is known to depend upon various experimental conditions such as particle size, pH, metal concentration, ligand concentration and competing for ions 9.
Scientists have focused their momentum for the search of low cost and easy available biomaterials for the wastewater treatment. Chitosan 10, alginate 11, cellulose 12 and lignin 13 are some of the well known natural polymers that have received considerable attention for water treatment. Characteristics of various types of biopolymers are shown in Table 1.
A vast literature is nowadays available on all of these biopolymers. Given their excellent properties to be used as efficient materials for heavy metal adsorption, this review will highlight some of the recent studies conducted on chitosan and cellulose for water treatment. Also, this review will focus on various derivatives of these polymers that have been developed to enhance their efficiency in removal of toxic and heavy metals.
Chitosan: Chitosan is a versatile polyaminosachride produced by alkaline N-deacetylation of chitin involving deproteination and deacetylation. Owing to many attractive properties such as hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and presence of very reactive amino(-NH2) and hydroxyl(-OH) groups in its backbone, chitosan has been used as an effective material for the removal of heavy metals from waste waters 14. Mostly the adsorption depends on the pH values, and the chitosan is very sensitive to pH 15. Chitosan has the property to increase its metal binding efficiency by undergoing chemical modification with the cross-linking reagents including ethylene glycondiglycidyl ether, formaldehyde, glyoxal, epichlorohydrin, glutaraldehyde, and isocyanates 16.
The reagents used in cross-linking not only stabilize the chitosan in acidic solution, making it insoluble in acidic medium but also enhance its mechanical properties 15. Table 2 shows adsorption capacities and experimental conditions of chitosan composites for removal of various heavy metals from wastewater.
TABLE 1: DIFFERENT BIOPOLYMER, SOURCE AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS 17
|Chitosan||crustaceans and fungi||biocompatible, biodegradable, antimicrobial activity, antistatic activity, nontoxic, chelating property, deodorizing property, film-forming ability, chemical reactivity, polyelectrolyte nature, dyeing improvement ability, cost-effectiveness, thickening property, wound healing activity|
|Alginate||Brown Algae||Biocompatibility, biodegradable, drug delivery, wound healing, tissue engineering, an adsorbent for heavy metals|
|Cellulose||Green plants, Algae, and oomycetes||Tasteless, odorless, hydrophilic, biodegradable, insoluble in water and most organic solvents, adsorbent|
|Lignin||Vascular green plants||Antioxidant, Antifungal, Extraction of heavy metals in various methods|
TABLE 2: SHOWS ADSORPTION CAPACITIES AND EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS OF CHITOSAN COMPOSITES FOR REMOVAL OF VARIOUS HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER
|Polyelectrolyte complex pectin/chitosan 18||30.1||-||-|
|Chitosan 19||-||Ist order Kinetics|
|Magnetic chitosan resin (EMCMCR) 20||-||25||-||Langmuir adsorption|
|Chitosan blended with Cellulose 21||Copper (II)||-||-||Langmuir, Freundlich|
|Chitosan coated carbon 22||Cr (IV) Cd(II)||-||-||5.0, 5.5||Pseudo second-order||Langmuir adsorption|
|Chitosan 23||Cr (VI)||11.6||25||5||-||-|
|Semi-IPN hydrogels/CS 25||Cu (II)||261.3||-||-||-||-|
|Bromine pretreated chitosan 26||Pb(II)||0.001755||-||-||-||Freundlich|
|Chitosan-magnetite microparticles 27||NI,CO||588.24,833.34 resp.||-||-||-||Langmuir, Freundlich|
|Chitosan produced from shrimp shell waste 28||Cu(II), Hg(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II)||79.94, 109.55, 58.71, 47.15||-||6||-||Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and SIPS|
|Chitosan–silica hybrid 29||Co (II), Ni (II), Cd (II), Pb(II)||0.63mmol/g||-||-||-||Langmuir and Sips|
|Grafted chitosan of polyacrylonitrile 30||Cr (VI) and Cu(II||-||-||-||-||Langmuir|
Chitosan derivatives have been used extensively investigated as adsorbent 31 among them are chitosan derivatives containing nitrogen phosphorous and sulphur as hetero atoms and other derivatives such as chitosan crown ethers and chitosan ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)/ diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) complexes 32. Recently chitosan composites have been developed for the adsorption of heavy metals from wastewater. Different kinds of substances have been used to form composites with chitosan such as polyelectrolyte films formed by initially mixing chitosan with acetate to form carboxymethyl chitosan mixed with pectin to form CMC/pectin films showing an increase in adsorption capacity for the removal of Pb (II) ions from the treated waste water 18.
Adsorption of Lead (II) ion on chitosan has found to be dependent on contact time, concentration, temperature, and pH of the solution. The removal processes fit the first order kinetics 19. Ethylenediamine modified cross-linked magnetic chitosan resin (EMCMCR) was used for the adsorption of Cu (II) ion from wastewater. The best results of adsorption were observed at pH of 6.0, the temperature of 25 ºC with the initial concentration of 200 ppm. The adsorption was best with Langmuir adsorption model 20. Removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution took place by chitosan/cellulose blended beads cross-linked by formaldehyde and was found to be highly pH dependent.
The experimental was best-fitted data with Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The energy of adsorption showed that the process is physical adsorption process 21. Chitosan-coated carbon type adsorbent was used for the removal of Cr(IV) and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions at a pH of 5.0 and 5.5 respectively at optimum temperature. The experimental data is best fitted with Langmuir adsorption and follows pseudo-second-order kinetics 22.
Chitosan-zeolite(CZ) composite was prepared by using zeolite and chitosan for the adsorption of Cu(II) ions from the treated wastewater 23. Polyethylene glycol cross-linked chitosan films with sub-micrometer porous structure also used for Fe removal from aqueous solutions. The adsorption process was studied by several parameters such as contact time, pH and metal ion concentration 24. The granular semi-IPN hydrogel was prepared in an aqueous media by grafting and crosslinking reactions between chitosan (CTS), gelatin (GE), acrylic acid (AA), and N, N-methylene-bis-acrylamide for adsorption of Cu(II) ions. The hydrogel strength, reuse, recovery properties and adsorption for Cu(II) ion was tested systematically, and it was observed that the complexation and ion-exchange interactions occur between the functional groups (COO− and NH2) 25.
Treatment of chitosan with 30% bromine increases Pb(II) ions adsorption due increase the surface area and porosity using physicochemical interaction with cationic sites of its skeleton, owing to the anionic alteration at amino linkages of chitosan which facilitates Pb(II) ion removal by chemical interaction 26.
Chitosan-magnetite nanoparticles were used for the adsorption of nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) ions from aqueous solutions 27. Chitosan derived from shrimp shell waste used for the removal of Cu(II), Hg(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from gold ore stalking solutions containing cyanide. Experimental results were testing by using the Langmuir, Freundlich, SIPS, and Redlich–Peterson isotherm models and maximum adsorption capacity for Cu(II) (79.94 mg/g), Hg(II) (109.55 mg/g), Pb(II) (58.71 mg/g) and Zn(II) (47.15 mg/g) and is best fitted with Langmuir equation 28. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) ligand gets combined with chitosan-silica hybrid materials for synthesizing a novel type adsorbent for decontaminating the Co(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution 29.
Graft copolymerization of polyacrylonitrile on chitosan surface in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate was used for removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous media 30. Thiourea modified chitosan was synthesized in two steps, O-carboxymethylation first and secondly the polymeric Schiff base of thiourea/glutaraldehyde was used for the adsorption of Hg(II) 31. Beads of thiourea-modified chitosan were used for the adsorption of Cu(II) was prepared by several media(citric acid, sodium hypophosphite, glutaraldehyde, and SiO2) 32.
Graft copolymerization of chitosan with polyacrylonitrile in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate used for the removal of Pb(II) and Ni(II) ions from aqueous solutions 33. To facilitate the adsorption efficiency, the chitosan was combined with sodium alginate and was used for the removal of heavy-metals ions of Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Ag(II) ions from wastewater 34. The macromolecule flocculant-mercapto-acetyl chitosan was synthesized by reacting CTS and L-cysteine, as adsorbent was used to chelate the heavy metals for the removal of Cu(II) ions with a 100% removal rate 35. The Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions are removed from metal solution by using crosslinked chitosan synthesized by graft copolymerization of chitosan with acrylonitrile in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator.
The adsorption efficiency of adsorbent was depended on the pH of the solution, adsorbent dosage and contact time 36. Cr(VI) ion was removed through crosslinked chitosan(CRCH) which was synthesized by gamma irradiation in the presence of carbon tetrachloride. The adsorption efficiency and product formed CRCH were compared with simple chitosan at pH 3. CRCH showed higher adsorption capacity of Cr (VI) ion, and its experimental results were best fitted with adsorption models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich. The most important role of CRCH, for treating the wastewater containing Cr(VI) ion, after adsorption Cr(VI) ion through the column; the column can be easily regenerated and skillfully reused 37. Alginic acid and chitosan, both naturally occurring polysaccharides are the most effective adsorbents for removal of Co(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) from waste water.
The combined use of alginic acid and chitosan was expected to form a rigid matrix due to anionic interaction between amino groups of chitosan and carboxyl groups of alginic acid and the crosslinking between the two successfully took place through glutaraldehyde. The crosslinking makes the beads durable and facilitates the adsorption of Cu(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) ions under acidic conditions 38.
Cellulose: Polysaccharides are among the most abundant among all the polymers present on earth 39 derived from various sources shown in Fig. 1. Cellulose has been used in the form of wood and cotton for thousands of years as an energy source, building material, and clothing. Cellulose consists of β-D-glucopyranose repeat units which are covalently linked by acetal functionalities between the equatorial OH group on carbon atom (C4) and carbon atom (C1), hence the name β-1,4-glucan. As a result, cellulose possesses a long linear chain polymer with a large number of hydroxyl groups (three groups per anhydrous glucose unit (AGU)) and a thermodynamically preferred conformation 4C1 (a bond between carbons 4 and 1). The length of the polymeric cellulose chain depends on the number of constituent AGU unit’s, degree of polymerization (DP) and varies with the origin and treatment of the cellulose raw material 40.
FIG. 1: SHOWS THE EXTRACTION OF CELLULOSE FROM DIFFERENT WOOD SOURCES
This molecular structure gives cellulose a characteristic property of hydrophilicity, chirality, and degradability. Chemical reactivity is largely a function of the high donor reactivity of the OH groups 41. In particular, two main approaches have been tried in the conversion of cellulose into compounds capable of adsorbing heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. The first method involves a direct modification of the cellulose backbone with the introduction of chelating or metal binding functionalities. Alternative approaches have been focused on grafting of selected monomers to the cellulose backbone either directly by the introduction of metal binding capability or with subsequent functionalization of these grafted polymer chains with known chelating moieties 42.
Pure cellulose has very few applications compared to the diversity of applications of its modified form 43. Chemical modifications increase its adsorption capacity for heavy metals in aqueous and non-aqueous media 44. Moreover, chemical modifications can also be used to vary several other properties of cellulose, such as hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, elasticity, absorptivity, microbial resistance, heat and mechanical resistance 45.
Chemical modification of a polysaccharide surface follows the same principles as those established for other media, such as silica gel. However, the hydroxyl groups (-OH) on cellulose are less reactive, and the start of a chemical modification takes place at the primary hydroxyl found on carbon 6 (C6), which may occur through several different methods. However, modifications can also occur on the secondary hydroxyl groups (-OH) present on carbons 2 and 3.
The significant modifications of cellulose occur through halogenation, oxidation, etherification and esterification 46. Adsorption capacities and experimental conditions of cellulose/modified cellulose for removal of various heavy metals ions from wastewater are shown in Table 3.
TABLE 3: ADSORPTION CAPACITIES AND EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS OF CELLULOSE FOR REMOVAL OF VARIOUS HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER
|Cellulose grafted with acrylonitrile||Cr (VI)||-||-||pseudo second-order||47|
|CelEnEs||Pb(II)> Cd(II)> Ni(II)> Co(II)> Cu(II)> Zn(II)||-||-||-||-||48|
|Collagen/cellulose hydrogel beads||Cu (II)||1.06 mmol/g||-||-||Langmuir 49|
|M-CS/PVA/CCNFs||Pb (II)||171.0||-||-||Pseudo second-order||Langmuir 50|
|Mercerized cellulose||Cu(II),Cd(II), Pb(II)||30.4, 86.0, 205.9||-||-||-||Langmuir 51|
|Bifunctional cotton fabric waste||Co(II), NO3-||38.5,11||-||5,4.5||Pseudosecond order||Freundlich,
|Cell-g-PGMA-PEI||Cu(II)||102||28||3.5-7.0||pseudosecond order||Langmuir, Freundlich 54|
|Welan gum-modified cellulose||Cd(II), P(II) and Cu(II)||83.6, 77.0, 67.4||-||5.0||pseudo-first-order||Langmuir 55|
|Cellulose acetate (CA)/silica composite||Cr (VI)||19.46||30||1.0||-||Langmuir 56|
|Oxidized cellulose-based materials||Hg (II)||258.75||30||4.4||pseudo second order||Langmuir 57|
|Microfibrillated cellulose||Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II)||2.734, 3.150 and 4.195 mmol/g||-||-||pseudo-second-order||-|
|Cellulose modified||Hg(II)||172.5||30||5.1.||pseudo-second-order||Freundlich 58|
|Magnetite cellulose–chitosan hydrogels||Cu(II), Pb(II) , (II)||44.7_5, 28.1_3, 94.1_7||-||5.0||-||-|
|Carboxylated cellulose (NaSCNCs)||Pb (II)cd (II)||259.7,465.1||5.5 , 6.5||pseudo-second-order||Langmuir 59|
|Cellulose (AM-Fe-PGDC)||arsenic(V)||105.47||25||6.0||pseudo-second-order||Langmuir 60|
|Magnetic cellulose−chitosan composite||Cu(II)||65.8||25||5.0||pseudo-second-order||Langmuir 61|
In particular, two main approaches have been tried in the conversion of cellulose into compounds capable of adsorbing heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. One of these methods involves a direct modification of the cellulose backbone with chelation or metal binding functionalities producing a wide range of heavy metal adsorbents. An alternative approach has been focused on grafting of selected monomers to the cellulose backbone either directly by introducing metal binding capability or with subsequent functionalization of the grafted polymer chains. With known chelating moieties such as graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile on to cellulosic material derived from sisal fiber in the presence of ceric ammonium nitrate (as initiator) used for making adsorbent to remove Cr(VI) ions from aqueous media. By using this material as an adsorbent, Cr(VI) ions removal was found to be optimum at pH 5, and the experimental data were best fitted with Freundlich isotherm and kinetic studies revealed that the process follows pseudo-second-order kinetic 47. For the removal of divalent metal sorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) cellulose was modified with thionyl chloride to increase its reactivity.
This modified Cellulose was reacted with ethylenediamine (CelEn) and subsequently reacted with ethylene sulfide to obtain a solid substance, CelEnEs 48. Collagen/cellulose based hydrogel beads (CCHBs) from 1-butyl, 3-methylimidazolium chloride is used for the adsorption of Cu(II) ion from aqueous solutions. The three-dimensional macroporous structure of modified cellulose containing amino groups is believed to be the main active binding site of Cu(II) ions 49. Modification of cellulose with maleic anhydride was used for the synthesis of a novel type adsorbent (CM) for the removal of Hg(II) ions. The titration method was employed to find the degree of the carboxyl group of CM and was found to be 2.7 mmolg-1.
The effect of different experimental parameters such as temperature contact time and pH was evaluated during the removal process. The experimental data were best fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model, and kinetic studies revealed that it would follow pseudo-second-order kinetics with a maximum adsorption capacity of Hg(II) was found to be 172.5 mg g-1 50. Mercurized cellulose modified by succinic anhydride was used for the preparation of new chelating material for Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb2+ions 51. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) type adsorbent was synthesized by the graft copolymerization of aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APS) for the removal of Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution and the maximum adsorption capacities for Ni(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) ions of the modified APS/MFC adsorbent was 2.734, 3.150 and 4.195 mmol/g, respectively 52. For the removal of cobalt (Co(II) and nitrate (NO3) ions, a new type of adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and methacrylic, the subsequent chemical modification with triethylamine, which produced bifunctional cotton fabric waste bearing N+ (CH2CH3)3 and COOH groups carrying the potential application of adsorption 53. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator for graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto cellulose and subsequent modification with polyethyleneimine (PEI) produces an improved synthesis of a branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) modified cellulose-based adsorbent (Cell-g-PGMA-PEI) for adsorption of Cu(II) from the aqueous medium. The efficiency of adsorbent capacity increases by decreasing the side reaction of epoxide ring opening during graft copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto cellulose which increases the epoxy groups, anchors to immobilize branched PEI moiety 54.
Adsorption of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions with novel welan gum-modified cellulose adsorbent was prepared through emulsification, regeneration, and modification with the maximum adsorption capacities of 83.6, 77.0 and 67.4 mg/g respectively. Moreover, the adsorption capacities for the three metal ions increased with the increase in temperature, and the maximum adsorption occurs at pH 5 55.
Cellulose acetate (CA) with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as a silica source in the presence of coupling reagent 3-ureidopropyltriethoxysilane was used for the synthesis of novel NH2-functionalized cellulose acetate (CA)/silica composite nanofibrous membranes with electrospinning technology which was employed for the removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous media 56. A new sensor type adsorbent for rapid, selective, simultaneous detection and removal of Hg (II) ions was prepared from cellulose by etherified, oxidized, and modified to Schiff base by reaction with L-lysine for the synthesis of new oxidized cellulose-based materials. The experimental data follows pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm with high maximum adsorption capacity of 258.75 mg g−1 57.
Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) blended chitosan and carboxylated cellulose nanofibrils (CCNFs) was used for the preparation of magnetic hydrogel beads (m-CS/PVA/CCNFs) and used as adsorbents for removal of Pb(II) ions 58. A cellulose type nano adsorbent is used for the removal of Pb(II)and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions. This nano-adsorbent was prepared by hydrolysis of cotton to obtain cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) subsequently; the CNCs were then chemically modified with succinic anhydride to obtain SCNCs. The sodic nano-adsorbent (NaSCNCs) was further prepared by treatment of SCNCs with saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution 59.
In order to determine the adsorption potential of anion exchanger, Fe(III)-coordinated amino-functionalized poly glycidyl methacrylate-grafted TiO2-densified cellulose (AM-Fe-PGDC) was used for As(V) ion removal from aqueous solutions proposed by Anirudhan et al. Its adsorption rate was influenced by initial contact time and metal ion concentration and its experimental data was found to be fitted with pseudo-second-order kinetic model 60. The novel property of surface adsorption of cellulose nanofibers (CNF), chitin nanocrystals (ChNC) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) type adsorbents obtained from bio residues to remove Ag(II) ions from contaminated water.
Surface adsorption on the nanoparticles through electrostatic interactions is considered to be the best mechanism for the heavy metal ion adsorption from aqueous solutions, the negative charged CNC species and negatively charged functional groups being most suitable for chelation of positive to other native bionanomaterials 61. Graphene oxide/carboxymethyl cellulose (GO/CMC) based column is used as an adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions. GO/CMC monoliths changed the porous structure by incorporation of GO and increased their compressive strength 62. A novel magnetic cellulose-chitosan composite microsphere was synthesized by a method combining the emulsification procedure and cellulose-chitosan regeneration from the ionic liquid without surface modifications. The composite microspheres exhibited porous structure, large surface area, and affinity on metals, leading to the efficient uptake capacity of Cu(II) ions 63.
Zeolite/cellulose acetate blended (ZCAB) fibers, as an adsorbent for Adsorption of Cu(II) ion, was prepared by the wet spinning method and tested in a packed bed up-flow column. The adsorption process is influenced by several parameters, such as the pH of the solution, initial metal concentration, bed depth and flow rate 64. Cellulose matrix modified by ZrO2 for the synthesis of cellulose/ZrO2nanohybrid was used for selectivity adsorption toward eight metal ions, including Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Zr(II). These nanohybrids show best towards the Ni(II) ion and absorption was found to be 79 mgg-1 65.
The reaction between cellulose di-acetate (CA) and chitosan (CS) was used for the synthesis of several membranes having the affinity for chelation of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions. These membranes attracted the attention of researchers especially in the field of wastewater treatment for removing the heavy metals 66. The coating of bamboo culmic cellulose on carbon culms for processing a rigid matrix structure with good mechanical strength, the coating provides a stable adsorbent that was stable under acidic conditions for the adsorption of Cr(II), Cd(II), and Pd(II) metal ions from aqueous media and adsorption efficiency values 93%, 76%, and 82% respectively 67. For the adsorption of heavy metals, a new route was used for the synthesis of magnetite cellulose-chitosan hydrogel micro-spheres in which ionic liquids are used as solvents.
These magnetic hybrid hydrogel having high adsorption capacities for various heavy metal ions such as Cu(II), Pb(II) and Fe(II) ions and the consistent equilibrium adsorption capacity was found to be 44.7 ± 5 mgg-1, 28.1 ± 3 mgg-1, and 94.1 ± 7 mgg-1 respectively 68. A novel type cellulose adsorbent bearing chemically grafted thiosemicarbazide was used for adsorption of Co(II), Hg(II) and Cd(II) ions 69. Hydroxylamine was used for the Introduction of amidoxime group in cellulose-graft polyacrylonitrile (C-g-PAN). The prepared amidoximated grafted cellulose acts as an adsorbent for adsorption of Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) ions 70. The biodegradable adsorbent of chitosan (chitin)/cellulose composites which were prepared by using ionic liquids for adsorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions.
The adsorption capacities of various metal ions are 0.417 mmol/g, 0.303 mmol/g, 0.251 mmol/g, 0.225 mmol/g and 0.127 mmol/g, respectively. X-ray photoelectron and infrared spectra determine the strong hydrogen bonding between chitosan and cellulose in these composites. The presence of hydroxyl (-OH) and amine(-NH2) groups is believed to be the metal binding sites on composite skeleton 71.
CONCLUSION: In general, chitosan and cellulose are economically feasible because they are easy to prepare and involve inexpensive chemical reagents. Both of these polymers could be used as an alternative to replace the traditional, costly and environmentally toxic adsorbents currently used for adsorption of heavy metals. Adsorption efficiency of chitosan and cellulose is not good enough in pure form; therefore, modification of these biopolymers is necessary to increase the adsorption capacities and their applicability in different mediums. This field of research has a vast area for improvement in the hope that biopolymers can be applied commercially instead of laboratory scale.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The author Mudasir Ahmad gratefully acknowledges financial support from the University Grants Commission (UGC) New Delhi.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Ahmad M, Ahmed S, Swami BL and Ikram S: Adsorption of heavy metal ions: role of chitosan and cellulose for water treatment. Int J Pharmacognosy 2015; 2(6): 280-89. doi: 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.2(6).280-89.
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