JORDANIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR NEW ANTIMICROBIALS AGAINST MULTI DRUG RESISTANT: REVIEWHTML Full Text
JORDANIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE FOR NEW ANTIMICROBIALS AGAINST MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT: REVIEW
Ali Mahmoud Jasim Al-Samydai
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
ABSTRACT: Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today. Medicinal plants have historically proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential. The interest in natural product-based drug discovery has revitalized in recent years because synthetic compound libraries and high throughput screening for discovery of new drug leads did not meet the expectations. The aim of this study is to systematically review the use of Jordanian medicinal plants then identify the most attractive plant for the discovery and development of drugs against resistance Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa based on data collected from previous studies, that investigate the inhibitory effects of methanolic extracts of 8 Jordanian plants and their combinations with three antibiotics, on resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and studies that collected information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Jordan. The results suggested that Artemisia herba-alba used in Jordan as traditional medicine has been reported to have a significant effect against the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when combined with chloramphenicol, gentamycin, and cephalexin. Artemisia herba-alba that may help in the discovering of a new antibiotic.
Jordan, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Bacterial resistance inhibitors, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Plant extracts, Antibiotics, Medicinal plants
INTRODUCTION: Infectious diseases have been an important cause of morbidity and mortality throughout our history. Primitive people have used plants to cure a variety of human ailments. Even today, many people use higher plants as effective for the treatment of various diseases 1. Medicinal plants have a historically proven their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and nowadays still represent a role as a source of inspiration for novel drug compounds (leads) 2, 3.
However, since natural product-based drug discovery is associated with some intrinsic difficulties, the pharmaceutical industry has shifted its main focus toward synthetic compound libraries, and high throughput screening for discovery of new drug leads 4. The obtained results, however, did not meet the expectations as evident in a declining number of delivering lead compounds in key therapeutic areas 4, 5 as a result of that the interest in natural product-based drug discovery has revitalized in recent years 6, 7.
Natural product research continues to explore a range of lead structures, which may be used as templates for the development of new drugs optimization and provide intermediates that are used in the production of semi-synthetic drugs 8.
Worldwide, hundreds of higher plants are cultivated for substances useful in medicine and pharmacy 9. The importance of natural products in providing a source of new pharmaceutical compounds cannot be denied 7. According to the World Health Organization, antibiotic resistance has become a critical global public health issue of this century 10. Massive overuse of antibiotics drugs has been considering the main cause of resistance development against many antibiotics. So, this has created a serious clinical problem in the treatment of infectious diseases 11. One of the most problematic drug-resistant pathogens encountered today include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among the gram-positive bacteria and multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa among the gram-negative bacteria 12.
Since, its discovery in 1880, Staphylococcus aureus has been recognized as a versatile micro-organism worldwide 13. S. aureus may found on the face and hands as a part of the normal flora 14. S. aureus is a leading cause of Hospital-Associated (HA) and Community-Associated (CA) bacterial infections in humans, associating with numerous mild skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), as well as endovascular infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, life-threatening pneumonia, bacteremia and toxic shock syndrome 15. The rising expansion of Meticillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and its ability to resist multiple drugs has posted an earnest threat for infection control 16.
In 1882, P. aeruginosa was successfully isolated in pure culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide 12. P. aeruginosa causes urinary tract infections, Respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia), dermatitis, soft tissue infections, bloodstream (e.g. bacteremia), bone and joint infections(e.g., osteomyelitis), gastrointestinal infections (e.g., diarrhea, enteritis, enterocolitis), ear infections (e.g., otitis externa and media) and a variety of systemic infections, mostly in patients with severe burns and in cancer and AIDS patients who are immunosuppressed 17. Therefore, actions must be taken to reduce this problem, according to the World Health Organization medicinal plants would be the best source to obtain a variety of drugs 18. About 80% of individuals from developed countries use herbal medicinal products as a primary source of healthcare and traditional medical practice, which has compounds derived from medicinal plants 19. For that reason, using antibiotic resistance inhibitors from plant origin become one of the most successful methods to reduce the resistance to antibiotics. Jordan is a small country but has a great variety of wild plants due to the different geography and weather. About 2500 plant species (of which 2.5% species are listed as endemic) were recorded. The flora Jordan also contains medicinal and herbal species as well as aromatic and spice. Species from these plants, 485 species belonging to 99 different families are categorized as medicinal plants. These species have a broad distribution in the Jordan 20.
In the present work, we correlated 8 Jordanian plants, known to have some antimicrobial effect. Against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa for their possible inhibitory effect on resistance to three different antibiotics. Two strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. And then connected these results with collected information concerning the use of medicinal plants from 3 different locals in Jordan. This will help to make more focusing to find plants which could be played as templates for the development of new drugs against antibiotic resistance of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa.
Literature Review: The use of modern microbiological techniques demonstrates that higher plants frequently exhibit significant potency against human bacterial and fungal pathogens. As seen in 21 they studied the inhibitory effects of methanolic extracts of 19 Jordanian plants and their combinations with seven antibiotics, on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus. Results showed that there are variations in the effect of some combinations used on the resistant and the standard strains probably due to structural changes.
Common results between the two strains showed that combinations of gentamicin and chloramphenicol could be improved by the use of plant materials, whereas nalidixic acid activity cannot be improved when combined with plant materials. Interest in plants as sources of medicines and of novel molecules 22 they studied the inhibitory effects of methanolic extracts of 19 Jordanian plants was combined with seven different antibiotics, on the resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results showed that there are significant variations in the effects of some combinations used on the resistant and the standard strains probably due to structural changes. Almost all the plant materials used in combination with penicillin G and erythromycin allowed the full growth of the standard strain, while the combination with some plant materials like Gundelia tournefortii L. and Lepidium satium L. inhibited the growth of the resistant strain. Chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and cephalosporin can be given advantageously with almost all the plant materials used with few exceptions on the resistant strain. The nalidixic acid activity was improved significantly when combined with all plant materials and tested on the standard strain. On the other hand, its activity on the resistant strain was slightly improved using the same combinations.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 4000 million people in developing countries believe in the efficiency of plant remedies and use them regularly 20 gathered information from aboriginal Bedouins in North Badia region of Jordan about used medicinal herbs besides their folk uses. The data were collected from 40 practitioners who utilized medicinal plants and who were regarded as professional. Subsequently, the uses were compared with the reported ones in the literature. The informant consensus factor (Fic) and use value (UV) has been calculated to those herbs and managed illnesses. The data of 73 species were collected; the vast majority of them are safe such as Achillea falcata, Tamarix aphylla, and Teucrium polium. Treatment of inﬂammation and pain presented the major targeted use of these herbs. Gastrointestinal and respiratory systems, as well as diabetes, depicted the largest Fic values. Artemisia herba-alba possessed the highest UV value among the studied herbs.
Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous systems in Jordan. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture’s traditional knowledge 23. The aim of the study to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants of the Mujib region; identify the most important medicinal plants used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed and calculate the informant consensus factor (Fic) about medicinal plant use. Fifty-eight plants were identiﬁed to be still in use in traditional practice in Mujib. The results showed that the highest use values were recorded for the species Artemisia sieberi Bess. and Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. While the highest Fic was cited for digestive problems. Anthropologically.
The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for the conservation of medicinal plants 24. They collected information from local population concerning the use of Ajloun Heights region medicinal plants; identify the most important species used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed and calculate the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) about medicinal plant use. The results revealed that 46 plant species grown in the study region are still in use in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases.
Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Achillea falcata, Matricaria aurea, Majorana syriaca, Allium sativum, and Allium cepa. The use of moderately unsafe or toxic plants was noted to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the locals. These plants include Ecballium elaterium, E. hierosolymitana, M. autumnalis, and Citrullus colocynthis. Kidney problems scored the highest ICF while Crocus hyemalis was the plant of the highest use value.
The development of new antibiotics from new chemical entities is becoming more and more expensive, time-consuming, and compounded by emerging strains that are drug resistant. Alkaloids are secondary plant metabolites which have been shown to have potent pharmacological activities 25. They studied the effect of alkaloids from Callistemon citrinus, and Vernonia adoensis leaves on bacterial growth and efflux pump activity after evaluated on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results showed that Callistemon citrinus alkaloids showed antibacterial activity as well as inhibiting ATP-dependent transport of compounds across the cell membrane. These alkaloids may serve as potential courses of compounds that can act as lead compounds for the development of plant-based antibacterials and their adjunct compounds.
Achillea santolina usually used as antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and to reduce pain or dryness of the navel and stomach pain 26. The concentration of the important oil in the dry Achillea santolina ranged from 0.11-0.20 % in ten genotypes of this species. It contained 54 volatile components. The main components were fragranyl acetate, terpin-4-ol, and1, 8-cineole, fragranol. Achillea santolina also contained flavones, particularly flavonoids and sesquiterpene lactones 27.
Artemisia herba-alba Asso commonly known as the desert wormwood (Arabic name: Sheeh) growing widely in Jordan and in the Middle East 23, 24. Also, it found in different periods, July (flowering phase), and October and November (vegetative phase) 28. The essential oils yield ranged between 0.2% and 0.9% (v/d.w.). The main components were camphor, 1,8-cineole, borneol, pinocarvone, camphene, and chrysanthenone 29. It is used to treat inflammatory disorders (colds, coughing, bronchitis, and diarrhoea), infectious diseases (skin diseases, scabies and syphilis) and others (diabetes, neuralgias). In Jordanian traditional medicine, this plant is used as antiseptic and against skin diseases, scabies, syphilis, fever as well as menstrual and nervous disorders 30.
Cappari spinosa which was commonly used as a medicinal plant contained many biologically active chemical groups including, alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, phenolic, flavonoids, triterpenoids steroids, carbohydrates, saponins and a wide variety of minerals and trace elements. It exerted many pharmacological effects significant as anti-diabetic, antisclerosis, antimicrobial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiviral activities providing support to the ancient uses 31, 32.
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been used commonly as a food, in herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a flavoring agent in the food industry and as a herbal medicine 33. Showed many pharmacological effects significant as antibacterial, anti-oxidant, nephron- and hepato-protective, renal/diuretic effect, effects on lipid metabolism (anti-cholesterol), anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive effects among others. This might be linked to strong antioxidant activities. The main constituents of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. relevant in the context of its pharmacological are organic acids, anthocyanins, polysaccharides and flavonoids 34.
Lepidium sativum L. belongs to family Cruciferae (cabbage family) 35. The plant is known to contain imidazole, lepidine, semilepidinoside A and B, β-carotenes, ascorbic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid 14, sinapic acid and sinapin 36. Lepidium sativum Linn. is widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of hyperactive airways disorders, such as asthma, bronchitis, and cough. Seeds are considered to be a galactagogue, emmenagogue and recommenced in inflammation, bronchitis, muscular pain and rheumatism 37.
Teucrium polium L. (family Lamiaceae) is a wild-growing flowering plant, found abundantly in South-Western Asia, Europe and North Africa 38. Traditionally, Teucrium polium L. has been used for different pathological conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders, inflammations, diabetes, rheumatism, abdominal pain, indigestion, common cold and Type 2 diabetes 39, 40, 41. It contained different classes of compounds such as neoclero-dane diterpenoids, the chemotaxonomic markers of the genus, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids, and fatty acid esters. Up to now, more than 134 active substances with wide structural and chemical diversities have been isolated and characterized from the aerial parts, roots, and seeds of T. polium L. subspecies 39, 41.
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is traditional medicinal plant extracts have been evaluated for their potential application in the medicinal purposes. Fenugreek has been used in food as a flavoring agent while ancient times 42. Fenugreek seed is a good source of calcium, minerals, iron, β-carotene and several vitamins like vitamins A and D. It is a rich source of available carbohydrates and dietary fiber 43. It is a source of free amino acids; 4-hydroxyisoleucine, histidine, arginine and lysine (25.8%), moisture (11.76%), crude fibre (6.28%), ash content (3.26%) protein (20-30%), fat (6.53%), and energy (394.46 Kcal/100 g seed) 44. It contains lecithin, choline, minerals, B. complex, phosphates and Para-Amino Benzoic acid (PABA). Also, the main chemical compounds in fenugreek are saponins, fenugreek in, trigonelline, coumarin, scopoletin, phytic acid and nicotinic acid 42. Varthemia iphionoides Boiss and Blanche are commonly used as a Jordanian folk-medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders and diabetes mellitus good source of active phytochemical compound Eudesmane sesquiterpene, flavonoids: jaceidine, kumatakenine, xanthomicrol, seven 3-methoxy flavones 45, 46.
METHODOLOGY: English language articles from January 2001 through March 2011 were searched in the electronic databases Pubmed and Science Direct. The Cochrane Library was searched using the following terms as keywords: (Bacterial resistance inhibitors, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, plant extracts; antibiotics, ethnopharmacology. Traditional medicine, Medicinal plants, Informant Consensus Factor, Use value, Jordan, Ajloun, Mujib, Northern Badia and Folkloric medicine). No further restrictions were imposed on either search. All articles selected were read to determine whether they met inclusion criteria.
Work Procedures: This study based on two studies concerned about bacterial resistance inhibitors, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, plant extracts; antibiotics, ethnopharmacology in Jordan, traditional medicine and medicinal plants 20-24.
SCHEME 1: WORK PROCEDURES
Chl, chloramphenicol; Gent, gentamycin; Ceph, cephalexin, P, Pseudomonas; S. Staphylococcus
Study Hypotheses: In light of the study objectives and models, we derive the following study hypotheses:
H0: the population means are equal: µ1 = µ 2 = µ 3= µ 4 there are no significant differences between % growth of resistant and standard Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus. H1: the population means are not equal: µ1 ≠ µ 2 ≠ µ 3≠µ 4 there are significant differences between % growth of resistant and standard Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus.
Statistical Analysis: Our primary statistical analysis investigated the relationship between plant type and the growth of resistant and standard Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We employed a modified intent-to-treat approach whereby, we used the most inclusive sample analyzed in the original publication of each of the two studies Table 2. To investigate the association between plant type and the growth we conducted compared mean (one way ANOVA) that controlled the effect of the study from which the data originated.
RESULTS: By using descriptive analysis, it was determined that the mean of % growth of resistant and standard Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
|Achillea santolina L.||12||.0||73.9||23.142||32.0361|
|Artemisia herba-alba Asso.||12||.0||146.5||30.329||46.5894|
|Capparis spinosa L.||12||.0||121.2||30.075||43.3282|
|Hibiscus sabdariffa L.||12||.5||95.4||33.267||41.3360|
|Lepidium satiuum L.||12||.5||95.6||24.933||36.0594|
|Teucrium polium L.||12||.0||91.3||26.983||37.1719|
|Trigonella foenum-graecum L.||12||.0||104.0||26.008||41.4546|
|Varthemia iphionoides Boiss & Blanche||12||.0||86.1||20.350||31.4422|
|Valid N (list-wise)||12|
TABLE 2: ONE-WAY ANOVA
1. Achillea santolina L, 2. Artemisia herba-alba Asso. 3. Capparis spinosa L. 4. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. 5. Lepidium satiuum L. 6. Teucrium polium L.7. Trigonella foenum-graecum L8. Varthemia iphionoides Boiss & Blanche
TABLE 3A: MULTIPLE COMPARISONS SCHEFFE OF ARTEMISIA HERBA-ALBA ASSO
|Sig.||95% Confidence Interval|
|Lower Bound||Upper Bound|
|Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa||Stander Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.394||-58.168||187.468|
|Resistant Staphylococcus aureus||.974||-106.651||138.985|
|Stander Staphylococcus aureus||.472||-64.285||181.351|
|Stander Pseudomonas aeruginosa||Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.394||-187.468||58.168|
|Resistant Staphylococcus aureus||.614||-171.301||74.335|
|Stander Staphylococcus aureus||.998||-128.935||116.701|
|Resistant Staphylococcus aureus||Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.974||-138.985||106.651|
|Stander Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.614||-74.335||171.301|
|Stander Staphylococcus aureus||.703||-80.451||165.185|
|Stander Staphylococcus aureus||Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.472||-181.351||64.285|
|Stander Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.998||-116.701||128.935|
|Resistant Staphylococcus aureus||.703||-165.185||80.451|
*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.
TABLE 3B: MULTIPLE COMPARISONS SCHEFFE OF CAPPARIS SPINOSA L.
|Sig.||95% Confidence Interval|
|Lower Bound||Upper Bound|
|Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa||Stander Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.156||-24.766||173.233|
|Resistant Staphylococcus aureus||.720||-65.800||132.200|
|Stander Staphylococcus aureus||.184||-28.466||169.533|
|Stander Pseudomonas aeruginosa||Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.156||-173.233||24.766|
|Resistant Staphylococcus aureus||.579||-140.033||57.966|
|Stander Staphylococcus aureus||.999||-102.700||95.300|
|Resistant Staphylococcus aureus||Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.720||-132.200||65.800|
|Stander Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.579||-57.966||140.033|
|Stander Staphylococcus aureus||.645||-61.666||136.333|
|Stander Staphylococcus aureus||Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.184||-169.533||28.466|
|Stander Pseudomonas aeruginosa||.999||-95.300||102.700|
|Resistant Staphylococcus aureus||.645||-136.333||61.666|
*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.
FIG. 1: SHOWN USE VALUE AND ONE-WAY ANOVA SIG. VALUE
DISCUSSION: The results confirm that plant extracted when combined with chloramphenicol, gentamycin and cephalexin antibiotics affect on the % growth of resistant and standard Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The results of Achillea santolina L. and Varthemia iphionoides Boiss & Blanche., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium satiuum L., Teucrium polium L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., shown in Table 2 showed there was a statistically significant difference in % growth of resistant and standard of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by one-way ANOVA with F(8.889, 5.208, 19.463, 24.243, 114.337 and 43.093) with p-value of (0.006, 0.028, 0.0, 0.0 and 0.0) respectively. Based on these results we rejected the null hypothesis for Achillea santolina L. and Varthemia iphionoides Boiss & Blanche., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium satiuum L., Teucrium polium L., T. foenum-graecum L.
On the other hand, results of Artemisia herba-alba Asso. and Capparis spinosa L. Shown in Table 2 indicated that statistically no significant difference in % growth of resistant and standard of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus as determined by one-way ANOVA with (F (1.624 and3.045) with p value of (0.259 and 0.092) respectively. Based on these results we accept the null hypothesis for Artemisia herba-alba Asso. and Capparis spinosa.
Multiple Comparisons of Artemisia herba-alba Asso. and Capparis spinosa L. Shown in Table 3 of Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa versus Stander Pseudomonas aeruginosa, versus Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Stander Staphylococcus aureus comparison, the significance level was more than p 0.05 among them, thus; The results of each group are not significantly different, and all results showed homogeneity with F-test ratio (1.624 and 3.045) for Artemisia herba-alba Asso. and Capparis spinosa L. respectively, which is not sufficiently large. As a result, we conclude that all means are statistically equal.
The study found that extracts of Artemisia herba-alba affect against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa which are matching the findings of 47. The chloroform extracted of Artemisia herba-alba has antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, 48 studied ethanol and chloroform extracted from different parts of Capparis spinosa (flowers, fruits, leaves, and roots) and founded that Capparis spinosa L. roots showed good inhibitory effects against tested Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus compared with standard antibiotics.
We linked previous studies finds with studies that screened Artemisia herba-alba and Capparis spinosa as traditional medicine used in Jordan (Ajloun, Mujib and Northern Badia). Artemisia herba-alba showed higher UV value at (Ajloun, Mujib and Northern Badia) with 0.2, 0.54 and 0.32 respectively, with a mean of 0.355. While, Capparis spinosa showed lesser UV value at (Ajloun, Mujib and Northern Badia) with 0.06, 0.23, 0.3 respectively, with a mean of 0.196. As use-value (UV), is a quantitative method that demonstrates the relative importance of species known locally the Artemisia herba-alba have higher UV value than Capparis spinosa.
Ancient civilizations have used plants to cure a variety of human ailments. Even today, many people use higher plants as effective for the treatment of various diseases, Medicinal plants have proven, historically, their value as a source of molecules with therapeutic potential, and nowadays still represent a role as a source of inspiration for novel drug compounds (leads) 49. For that reason, using antimicrobial resistance inhibitors from plant origin like Artemisia herba-alba could become one of the most successful methods to reduce the resistance to antimicrobials. Artemisia herba-alba will be the best choice for future studies of discovery and development for drugs against resistance S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Because of its popularity in Jordan (From different locations) in comparison with Capparis spinosa and its effectiveness against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.
CONCLUSION: The 21st-century witnesses a major global health care problem which threatens the entire human life as the appearance and prevalence of multi-drug resistant microorganisms. We must understand that the battle against these microorganisms never ends, but we can beat them by changing our strategy by returning to nature, using active ingredients from plants that survived against microbes since millions of years. The results of Artemisia herba-alba used in traditional medicine had been reported to have a significant effect against the resistance of S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa when combined with chloramphenicol, gentamycin, and cephalexin. Besides, it has good use-value which demonstrates the relative importance of species known in Jordan. Serious interests should be by focusing on extracting drugs from Artemisia herba-alba. Hopefully, the area of antimicrobial research based on the medicinal plant might be proving fruitfully.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: I respect and thank Professor Dr. Talal A. Aburja for providing me an opportunity to do the project and giving me all support and guidance which made me complete the project duty. And Am extremely thankful to Prof. Muhammed Al-Zweiri for providing me such nice support, guidance and help.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
AL-Samydai AMJ: Jordanian medicinal plants as an alternative source for new antimicrobials against multi drug resistant: review. Int J Pharmacognosy 2018; 5(9): 581-89. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.5(9).581-89.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
A. M. J. Al-Samydai
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
09 June 2018
05 July 2018
09 July 2018
01 September 2018