IMPORTANCE OF PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA (LINN.): A REVIEWHTML Full Text
IMPORTANCE OF PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA (LINN.): A REVIEW
Varsha G. Gharge*, Dhairyasheel M. Ghadge, Pournima A. Shelar and Adhikrao V. Yadav
Gourishankar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Limb, Satara - 415015, Maharashtra, India.
ABSTRACT: Calotropis gigantean Linn. white (Asclepiadaceae), it is a weed plant commonly known as giant milkweed. It has one of the important traditional medicines to treat various ailments. The basic aim of this study to Calotropis gigantea is one such plant. In this review the systematic position, introduction about plant, morphological study, phytochemistry and the economical values of the Calotropis gigantea are discussed. Calotropis gigantea is a glabrous or hoary, laticiferous shrubs or small trees, it also known as “the swallow-wort or milkweed”. Calotropis is used as a traditional medicinal plant. C. gigantea contain chemical constituents are cardenolides, flavonoids, terpenes, pregnanes and a nonprotein amino acid. The latex, leaves, flowers, bark, root is also used as caustic, acrid, expectorant, depilatory, anti-helmintic, useful in leprosy scabies ring worm of the scalp, piles, eruptions on the body, asthma, enlargement of spleen and liver, dropsy applied to painful joint swellings. This review gives a brief idea about its phytochemistry and pharmacological activity.
Calotropis gigantean, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological activity, Traditional medicinal plant
INTRODUCTION: Calotropis gigantea Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant it belongs to the family of Asclepiadaceous 1, 2 are widely distribute in Asia and Africa 3, 4, 5. Asian countries that includes India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Srilanka and China. It is commonly known as milkweed and laticiferous shrub 6. The plant grows up to 2-4.3 meters long. It has oral, light green leaves and milky stem. The leaves are very much succulent in nature 7. Plants contain many biologically active molecules with different medicinal properties 8, 9. It is popularly known because it produces large quantity of latex and known as milkweed or swallowwort.
Latexes are source of various biologically active compounds, including glycosides, tannins and many proteins, among others 10, 11. Humankind first utilized materials found in environment an empirical basis to cure various ailments.
Natural products from plants and animals traditionally have provided the pharmaceutical industry with one of its important sources of lead compounds in search of new drugs and medicines. The search for new pharmacologically active agents from natural resources such as plants, animals and microbes led to discovery of many clinically useful drugs 12, 13.
Morphology: 14, 15
Root: Simple, branched, woody at base and covered with a fissured; corky bark; branches somewhat succulent and densely white tomentose; early glabrescent. All parts of the plant exude white latex when cut or broken.
Leaves: Opposite-decussate, simple, sub sessile, extipulate; blade-oblong obovate to broadly obovate, 5-30X 2.5-15.5 cm, apex abruptly and shortly acuminate to apiculate, base cordate, margins entire, succulent, white tomentose when young, later glabrescent and glacouse.
Flowers: Bracteate, complete, bisexual, action-morphic, pentamerous, hypogynous, pedicellate, pedicel 1-3 cm long
Calyx: Sepal 5, Polysepalous, 5 lobed, shortly united at the base, glabrescent, quincuncial aestivation
Androcium: Stamens five, gynandrous, anther dithecous, coherent.
Inflorescence: A dense, multi flowered, umbellate, peducled cymes, arising from the nodes and appearing axillary or terminal
Gynoecium: Bicarpellary, apocarpus, styles are united at their apex, peltate stigma with five lateral stigmatic surfaces. Anthers adnate to the stigma forming a gynostegium.
Fruit: A simple, fleshy, inflated, subglobose to obliquely ovoid follicle up to 10 cm or more in diameter.
Seeds: Many, small, flat, obovate, 6x5 mm, compressed with silky white pappus, 3 cm or more long.
FIG. 1: WHOLE PLANT OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LINN.
Chemical Constituents: The chemical constituents of C. gigantea have been extensively investigated, leading to the isolation of many cardenolides 16, 17, 18, 19, flavonoids 20, terpenes 21, 22, 23, 24, pregnanes 25, 26 and a nonprotein amino acid 27.
Uses: The flower were described in ancients Ayurveda as sweet-bitter, anthelmintic, analgesic, astringent, cures inflammations, tumors, kapha, rat-bite. The flowers are considered as digestive, stomachic, tonic, useful in asthma, catarrh and loss of appetite 28.
Aerial parts of Calotropis gigantea reported for anti- diarrheal activity 29. Latex of Calotropis gigantea evaluated for procoagulating activity associated with fibrinolytic activity 30. Alcoholic extract of the dried peeled roots of Calotropis gigantea posses CNS activity and pregnancy. Intraceptive activity 31, 32. Aerial parts of total aqueous extract and water soluble fraction of Calotropis gigantea were evaluated for immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimitotic activity 31, 32, 33. Alcoholic extract of stems posses hepatoprotective activity 34, 35.
TABLE 1: PHYTOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY OF PLANT CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA
|S. no.||Activity||Plant Part||Year||Remark|
|1||Repellant activity||Whole Plant||2005||Maximum repellent effect followed by leaf, flower, stem and root extracts 36|
|2||protective effect||Flowers||2008||The protective effect of the extract may be due to its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and prevent the depletion of
Vitamins C 37
|3||Gastric cancer, chronic myelogenous leukemia||Roots||2008||Chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 and human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell lines 38|
|4||Wound Healing Activity||Latex||2009||Latex treated animal’s exhibit 83.42 % reduction in wound area when compared to controls which was 76.22 %. The extract treated wounds are found to epithelize faster as compared to controls 39|
|5||Vasodilatation Effect||Latex||2009||Thus the present study reveals that the latex produces vasodilatation effect at fixed dose concentration 40|
|6||Diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma, rheumatoid arthritis and nervous disorders||Leaf and Flower||2009||It was observed that the effect of chloroform extracts of Calotropis gigantea on alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, levels are comparable to that of those produced by the positive control 41|
|7||Anti-inflammatory||Whole plants||2009||This study also proved the greater anti-inflammatory action due to the combined effect of C. gigantea and T. procumbens with Ibuprofen than Ibuprofen alone 42|
|8||Anthelmintic||Latex||2009||The potency of the compound in anthelmintic activity was found to be inversely proportional to the time taken for paralysis or death of the worms.|
|9||Antitumour activity||Flower||2009||The Calotropis gigantean flower has a potent inhibitory effect against EAC cells in a dose dependent manner 43|
|10||Antagonistic activity Antibacterial||Leaves||2010||The extract showed significant effect on the tested organisms. The extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus 44|
|11||Antihistaminic||Flowers||2010||The results obtained suggests that the ethanol extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers possess antihistaminic, mast cell stabilizing effect and hence confirms its potential role in the treatment of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders 45|
|12||Cytotoxicity||Whole plant||2010||C. gigantea and investigate preferential cytotoxicity of the insect extract, if any, on human cancer cell lines. Comparative chemical characterization by HPTLC, UV and IR studies revealed the presence of cardenolides in both the extracts and biotransformation of some of the ingested cardenolides in the insect extract 46|
|13||Antimicrobial activity||Leaves||2011||Thus it may be suggested that leaf extracts of Calotropis gigantea L. may be used to treat oral bacterial diseases 47|
|14||Diabetes; Antidiabetic||Leaves and Flowers||2011||It is concluded that chloroform extracts of Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers have significant anti-diabetic activity 48|
|15||Antibacterial activity||Leaves||2011||The leaves extract of Calotropis gigantea were screened for its antibacterial and phytochemical activities 49|
|16||Antiasthmatic, Bronchoconstriction||Roots||2011||These studies showed significant protection at lower doses while further increase in dose level showed reduced activity 50|
|17||Anti-anaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing effect||Roots||2011||Roots containing α-and β-amyrin are reported to possess anti-lipoxygenase activity. Hence, our objective was to evaluate the effect of the methanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea (CG) root on egg albumin induced passive paw anaphylaxis and compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation in rats 51|
|18||Antitumor activity||Root Bark||2011||Methanol extract (ME) of C. gigantea root bark and its chloroform soluble fraction (CF) possesses significant antitumor activity 52|
|19||Wound healing and antimicrobial properties||Latex||2011||It exhibits a wide array of pharmacological activities including wound healing and antimicrobial properties. Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid was extracted for the first time from the latex of Calotropis gigantea and characterized by spectral studies. The presence of lupeol in the latex in appreciable amounts may account for its various biological activities 53|
|20||Asthma||Root||2011||These results suggest that CG may prove to be potential therapeutic drug for treating asthma owing to its anti-inflammatory, anti-lipoxygenase and antioxidant activities 54|
|21||cytotoxic activity||Root||2011||Ethanolic root extract of C. gigantea exhibits potent cytotoxic property comparable to that of standard drug. Therefore, this might be utilized for the development of novel anticancer drug leads 55|
|22||Antimicrobial Activity||Whole plant||2012||This plant showed significant showed significant antibacterial and antifungal effect against most of the pathogenic organic organisms: Bacillus subtilis [MTCC (121)], Staphylococcus aureus [MTCC (96)], Pseudomonas aeruginosa [MTCC (429)], Escherichia coli [MTCC (443)], and two fungi Candida albicans [MTCC (183)], Tinea capitis [MTCC (7739)] 56|
|23||Cervical cancer||Aerial part of the plant||2012||The docking analysis showed that all the sterol compounds showed the docking energy in the range of -12 to 16 Kcal/mol. The desmosterol exhibits the higher docking energy, showing the maximum potential against the HPV16 E6 cervical oncoprotein 57|
|24||Mosquito repellent activity||Leaves||2012||These results suggest that the leaves of C. gigantea have the potential to be used as a natural source for the development of new, safe, potential and eco-friendly insecticide for the control of C. gelidus and C. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes 58|
|25||Antioxidant||Root||2012||The plant extract possess high antioxidant activity when compared with standard ascorbic acid due to presence of high content of various phytochemicals 59|
|26||antileishmanial activity||Whole plant||2012||These results indicated that non-polar fractions of C. gigantea have favorable leishmanicidal activity and they should be further tested against amastigotes of L. major 60|
|27||Antibacterial, antiasthmatic, free radical scavenging, wound healing, vasodilation, procoagulant, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cytotoxic, analgesic, anti pyretic, anti convulsant and anti diarrheal activities.||Whole plant||2012||The plant was also mentioned in ayurveda and unani for the treatment of asthma and for many other diseases 61|
|28||Larvicide; dengue||Leaf||2012||The present report is the first preliminary study to show the larvicidal effect of C. gigantean 62|
|29||Procoagulant activity caustic, acrid, expectorant, depilatory, antihelmintic, useful in leprosy scabies ring worm of the scalp, piles, eruptions on the body, asthma, enlargement of spleen and liver, dropsy applied to painful joint swellings.||Whole plant||2012||This review gives a brief idea about its phytochemistry and pharmacological activity 63
|30||Antibacterial||Whole plant||2013||Synergism between plant extract and synthetic antibiotics can develop standardization of herbal medicine for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases 64|
|31||Repellent activity||Whole plant||2013||Studied Chemical repellents have been used in the past for controlling the vectors and to control the man vector contact 65|
|32||Repellent activity||Flower||2013||It may be concluded from the result that ethanol extract of Calotropis gigantea flower was effective in mosquito vector control and has an excellent potential in controlling the mosquito 66|
|33||Antimicrobial activity||Flowers||2013||The essential oil also shown antifungal activity at a concentration of 1000 ppm against Rhizoctonia solani sasakaii (maize host) (% Inhibition = 75) when compared with standard antifungal agent 67|
|34||Protease inhibitors||White and violet varieties plant||2013||The plant has also exhibited PLA2 inhibition activity in blood agar containing egg yolk. Protein interaction network profile has shown interactions with circulatory, neural and immune system components that can modulate and simulate the mechanism in the system approach 68|
|35||Antimicrobial Activities||Leaf||2014||The plants extract for their antimicrobial activity gave significant control of two pathogenic fungi at various concentration i.e 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent respectively 69|
|36||Antioxidant, Antimicrobial||Flower||2014||This study forms a basis of biological characterization and the importance of the compounds identified and creates many bioactive ingredients to treat many diseases 70|
|37||Larvicidal activity||Leaf||2014||These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This method is considered as a new approach to control vectors. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito
larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag NPs against vectors 71
|38||analgesicactivity, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity, antidiarrhoeal activity, anti-Candida activity, antibacterial activityand antioxidant activity||Whole plant||2014||In view of this the present study was investigated to review the phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, medicinal properties and biological properties of Calotropis gigantean 72
|39||Antianxiety; antidepressant; analgesic||Whole plant||2014||that the present studies scientifically validated traditional claims of C. gigantea for neuropharmacological activities 73|
|40||Antibacterial||Whole plant||2014||In the present investigation, the phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Calotropis gigantea and Datura metel. Solvent used chloroform, acetone and ethanol antibacterial activity maximum in Calotropis gigantea against Staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Klebsiella sp.,
compared to Datura metel 74
|41||Anti-HIV activity||Flowers||2014||Estari Mamidala studied The AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) in humans caused by the HIV-1 (Human immunodeficiency virus type 1) remains among the leading causes of death worldwide. In order to establish the study was undertaken to investigate the HIV-RT inhibitory activity of Calotropis gigantea flowers extracts 75|
|42||Antimicrobial activity||Leaves||2015||The results obtained from this study inferred that the leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was effectively inhibited the growth of test organism, while Calotropis gigantae did not show the activity which is in combination with E. camaldulensis shows the more activity against all pathogens 76|
|43||anti-proliferative activity||Leaves||2015||The taxol extracted from the fungal culture showed strong anti-proliferative activity against MCF 7 cell lines in vitro. The findings evidenced that the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. isolated from Calotropis gigantea can act as a potential candidate for taxol production laying a foundation for further research heading towards the scale-up studies related to taxol production 77|
|44||Immunosuppressive activity||Whole plant||2015||The data suggests that saponins extracted from these medicinal plants i.e. Calotropis gigantea, C. roteng and A. integrifolia showed immunosuppressive activity 78|
|45||anti-helminthic, anti-pyretic, and anti-malarial activities||Root||2015||The study showed that methanolic root extract induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells by altering Bax/BCl-2 expression. Further studies are required to obtain knowledge about the complete mechanism of its apoptosis inducing activity 79|
|46||Toothache and earache, sprain, anxiety, pain, epilepsy and in mental disorder||Whole plant||2015||The study conducted to find out number of insects damaging the plant Calotropis gigantea. In their natural habitat and estimate the population density of nine insects with biology of two major insects. The field activities of insects and their habitat were recorded and emphasized the role played by climatic factors on their population under the field condition of Guwahati 80|
|47||Anticancer phytopharmaca agent||Leaves||2016||C. gigantea leaves extract at a dose of 100 and 150 mg/Kg BW were able to inhibit the growth of fibrosarcoma in experimental animals induced DMBA. This extract also improved the apoptotic index of cell, respectively for 20.9 %; 21.5 % and 24.6 %, and increased the caspase-3 expression significantly. Based on those data, C. gigantea leaves ethanol extract was potential to develop as anticancer phytopharmaca agent 81|
|48||antimicrobial, analgesic, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-malarial activity||Whole plant||2016||Species have been known to possess antimicrobial, analgesic, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-malarial activity etc. They are also using as a source of methane, through anaerobic fermentation for bio fuel production 82
CONCLUSION: The plant Calotropis gigantea is a traditional medicional plant having many of phytochemical values with the antimicrobial, analgesic, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-malarial activity, antiasthmatic, free radical scavenging, wound healing, vasodilation, pro-coagulant, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cytotoxic, analgesic, anti pyretic, anti convulsant and anti diarrheal activities. As a hydrocarbon rich plant this plant needs more investigation on the aspect of energy conversion. The quality and quantity of the active principle which are important for many ailments are subjected to many factors such as climate, soil, etc. In this way standardization of the phytochemicals by these factors are very important to establish the uses of the plant more effectively.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: I solicit my deep sense of appreciation and love to my wonderful Father and Mother consider my self-privilege to have seen an entity of almighty in them. I consider myself as luckiest person being my sister Rupali always there besides me during my ups and downs in my life and also thank to my teacher who will guide me for writing this review article. I am immensely thankful to G. I. P. E. R Limb, Satara for their providing all facilities required for my work.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
- Agharkar SP: Medicinal plants of Bombay Presidency Scientific Pub. India.199; 48-49.
- Kumar G, Karthik L and Bhskara Rao KV: In-vitro anti- canadida activity of Calotropis gigantean against clinical isolates of Candida. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 2010; 3: 539-542.
- Hemalatha M and Arirudran B: Antimicrobial effect of separate extract of acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous from leaf of milkweed (Calotropis gigantea ). Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2011; 1(4): 102-107.
- The wealth of India. Raw Materials. Publication Information Directorate, India, Vol.1, 1992, 80.
- David M et al., Study of Calotropis gigantea Br. extracts on growth and survival dynamics of selected pathogenic microorganisms. International Journal of Biological Engineering. 2011; 1(1): 1-5.
- Pathak AK and Argal A: Analgesic activity of Calotropis gigantea Fitoterapia. 78: 40-42.
- Das S and Das S. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Calotropis gigantea and Tridax procumbens on wistar albino rats. Pharm. Sci. and Res. 2009; 1(4):123-126.
- Newman DJ, Cragg GM and Snader KM: J Nat Prod, 2003; 66(7): 1022-1037.
- Butler M: J Nat Prod, 2004; 67(12): 2141-2153.
- Dubey VK and Jagannadham MV: Phytochemistry, 2003; 62(7): 1057-1071.
- Seniya C and Trivedia SS: Antibacterial efficacy and phytochemical analysis of organic solvent extracts of Calotropis gigantean, Chem. Pharm. Res. 2011; 3(6): 330-336.
- Chitme Havagiray R., Chandra Ramesh, Kaushik Sadhna., Studies on anti-diarrhoeal activity of calotropis gigantea br. In experimental animals. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2004; 7(1):70-75.
- Agrawal A and Singh N. Pharmacological aspects of Calotropis Gigantea on various health problems: A Review. IJAPR. 2011; 2(12): 613-620.
- Sastry CST and Kavathekar KY: In: Plants for reclamation of wasteland, Publication and Information Directorate. CSIR, New Delhi, 1990: 175-179.
- Suresh Kumar P and Suresh E: Review on a potential herb Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) R. Br., Acad. J. Pharm. 2013; 2(2): 135-143.
- Mueen Ahmed KK, Rana AC and Dixit VK: Calotropis species (Ascelpediaceae) - A comprehensive review. Mag. 2005; 1:48-52.
- Singh B and Rastogi RP: Structure of asclepin and some observations on the NMR spectra of Calotropis glycosides. 1972; 11: 757-762.
- Lhinhatrakool T and Sutthivaiyakit S: 19-Nor- and 18,20-Epoxy-cardenolides from the leaves of Calotropis gigantea. Nat. Prod. 2006; 69: 1249-1251.
- Kiuchi F, Fukao Y, Maruyama T and Obata T: Cytotoxic principles of a Bangladeshi crude drug, Akond Mul (roots of Calotropis gigantea ). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1998; 46: 528-530.
- Sen S, Sahu NP and Mahato SB: Flavonol glycosides from Calotropis gigantea. Phytochemistry 1992; 31:2919-2921.
- Anjaneyulu V: Ramachandra Row, L. The triterpenes of Calotropis gigatea Curr. Sci.1968; 6: 156-157.
- Thakur S, Das P, Itoh T, Imai K and Matsumoto T: Latex extractables of Calotropis gigantea. 1984; 23: 2085-2087.
- Bhutani KK, Gupta DK and Kapil RS: Occurrence of D/E trans stereochemistry isoreric to ursane (cis) series in a new pentacyclic triterpene from Calotropis procera. Tetrahedron Lett. 1992; 33: 7593-7596.
- Ali M and Gupta J: New pentacyclic triterpenic esters from the roots of Calotropis procera. Indian J. Chem. 1999; 38B: 877-881.
- Kitagawa I, Zhang R, Park JD, Baek NI, Takeda Y, Yoshikawa M, Shibuya H: Indonesian medicinal plants. І. Chemical structures of calotroposides A and B, two new oxypregnane-oligoglycosides from the root of Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1992; 40:2007-2013.
- Shibuya H, Zhang R, Park JD, Baek NI, Takeda Y, Yoshikawa M, Kitagawa I: Indonesian medicinal Plants. Chemical structures of calotroposides C, D, E, F and G, five additional new oxypregnane-oligoglycosides from the roots of Calotropis gigantean (Asclepiadaceae). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1992; 40: 2647-2653.
- Pari K, Rao PJ, Devakumar C and Rastogi JN: A novel insect antifeedant nonprotein amino acid from Calotropis gigantea. Nat. Prod. 1998; 61: 102-104.
- Nadkarni AK: Indian Materia Medica. Popular Prakashan, 1954; 1(3): 237-241.
- Chitme HR, Chandra R and Kaushik S: Studies of anti-diarrheal activity of Calotropis gigantea Br. in experimental animals. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2004; 7(1): 70-75.
- Rajesh R, Gowda CDR, Nataraju A, Dhananjaya BL, Kemparaju K and Vishwanath BS: Procoagulant activity of Calotropis gigantea latex associated with fibrin (ogen) olytic activity. Toxicon. 2005; 46: 84-92.
- Argal A and Pathak AK: CNS activity of Calotropis gigantea J Ethnopharmacol. 2006, 106: 142-145.
- Sreevastava SR, Keshri G, Bhargavan B, Singh C and Singh MM: Pregnancy interceptive activity of the roots of Calotropis gigantea in rats. Contraception. 2007; 75: 318-322.
- Pardesi GS, Gadgoli C, Vaidya MD, Hasni HY, More BH and Bhuskat PP: Preliminary studies on antimitotic and anticancer activity of Calotropis gigantea. Pharmacognosy online. 2008; 1: 38-47.
- Lodhi G, Singh HK, Pant KK and Hussain Z: Hepato-protective effects of Calotropis gigantea extract against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats. Acta 2009; 59: 889-896.
- Arulprakash R and Veeravel R: Studies on the repellant properties of Calotropis gigantea Br. Plant parts against important storage insect pests. Madras Agric. J. 2005; 92 (4-6): 308-310.
- Kshirsagar A and Purnima A: Evaluation of Calotropis gigantea Br. flower extract on alcohol induced hepatotoxicity. Journal of Cell and Tissue Research. 2008; 8(3): 1551-1556.
- Wang ZN and Wang MY: A New Cytotoxic Pregnanone from Calotropis gigantean. 2008; 13: 3033-3039.
- Nalwaya N and Pokharna G: Wound healing activity of latex of Calotropis gigantea, International Joural of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. 2009; 1(1): 176-181.
- Sheelaa B and Hussain M: Vasodilatation effect of latex from Calotropis gigantea in green frog Rana hexadactyla. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences.2010; 2(1): 22-24.
- Rathod et al., Free radical scavenging activity of Calotropis gigantean on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2009; 615 -621.
- Das S and Das S. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of Calotropis gigantea and Tridax procumbens on wistar albino rats. Pharm. Sci. and Res. 2009; 1(4): 123-126.
- Chanda SR and Chanda I: Analgesic and anthelmintic activity of a protease extracted from the latex of the plant Calotropis gigantea NPAIJ. 2009; 5(2): 74-77.
- Habib MR and Aziz MA: Inhibition of Ehrlich’s ascites carcinoma by ethyl acetate extract from the flower of Calotropis gigantea in mice. J Appl Biomed. 2010; 8: 47-54.
- Kumar G and Karthik L: Antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of Calotropis Gigantea Leaves- An in-vitro International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research.2010; 4(2): 141-144.
- Vadnere GP and Gaud RS: Effect of Calotropis gigantea flowers extracts on mast cell degranulation in rats. Pharmacology Online. 2010; 3: 298-303.
- Mathen C and Hardikar B: Cytotoxic compounds from Poecilocerus pictus feeding on Calotropis gigantean. Journal of Experimental Therapeutics and Oncology.2010; 8: 177-185.
- Hemalatha M and Arirudran B: Antimicrobial effect of separate extract of acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous from leaf of milkweed (Calotropis gigantea ) Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2011; 1(4): 102-107.
- Rathod NR and Chitme HR: Hypoglycemic effect of Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oman Medical Journal. 2011; 26(2): 104-108.
- Seniya C and Trivedia SS: Antibacterial efficacy and phytochemical analysis of organic solvent extracts of Calotropis gigantean. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2011; 3(6): 330-336.
- Mayee R and Thosar A: Evalution of antiasthmatic activity of Calotropis gigantea Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011; 4(2): 3335.
- Bulani VD and Ghaisas MM: Anti-anaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing effect of Calotropis gigantea Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 2011; 30 (2): 363-7.
- Habib R and Karim R. Evaluation of antitumour activity of Calotropis gigantea root bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in swiss albino mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2011; 786-790.
- Saratha V and Pillai I: Isolation and characterization of lupeol, a triterpenoid from Calotropis gigantea International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2011; 10(2): 54-57.
- Bulani V and Biyani K: Inhibitory effect of Calotropis gigantea extract on Ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and arachidonic acid induced inflammation in a murine model of asthma. Int J Cur Bio Med Sci. 2011; 1(2): 19-25.
- Ravi RG and Dubey H: Cytotoxic activity of ethanolic root extract of Calotropis gigantea International Journal of Drug Development & Research. 2011; 3 (4): 101-108.
- Patil SM and Saini R: Antimicrobial activity of flower extracts of Calotropis gigantea. J. Pharm. Phytopharmacol. Res. 2012; 1(4): 142-145.
- Sureshkumar P and Senthilraja P: In-silico docking analysis of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) R. Br derived compound against anti cervical cancer activity. World Research Journal of Computer-Aided Drug Design. 2012; 1(1): 9-12.
- Kumar G, Karthik L and Bhaskara Rao KV: Larvicidal, repellent and ovicidal activity of Calotropis gigantean against Culex gelidus, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae. Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2012; 8(3): 869-880.
- Elakkiya P and Prasanna G: A study on phytochemical screening and in-vitro antioxidant activity of Calotropis gigantea International Journal of Pharm Tech Research. 2012; 4(4): 1428-1431.
- Oskuee R K and Jafari MR: In-vitro leishmanicidal activity of Calotropis gigantea and its fractions against leishmania major. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 2012; 6(23): 3977-3983.
- Gajalakshm S and Bhuvaneshwari M: Pharmacological activities of Calotropis gigantea: A perspective. Journal of Pharma Research and Reviews. 2012; 2(2): 29-33.
- Shreya N and Raghavendra NP: Larvicidal activity of Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br. on dengue and chikungunya vector Aedes aegypti. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 2012; 3(3):118-121.
- Joseph B and George J: Pharmacological and biological overview on Calotropis gigantean: A comprehensive review. Res J Pharm. App Sci. 2013; 3(5): 219-223.
- Joshi M: In-vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of Calotropis Procera, Eichhornia Crassipes and Datura Innoxia Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 2013; 6(5): 25-28.
- Dhivya R and Manimegalai K: Mosquito repellent activity of Calotropis gigantea (Apocynaceae) flower extracts against the filarial vector Culex Quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). International Journal of Institutional Pharmacy and Life Sciences. 2013; 3(6): 103-110.
- Singh M and Javed K: Chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of Calotropis gigantea flower essential oil collected from Northern plain of India. International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research. 2013; 4(4): 533-541.
- Krishanu S and Mishra D: Preliminary Physico Phyto-chemical and phyto-cognostical evaluation of the leaves of Calotropis gigantean (L.) R. Br. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences. 2013; 2(4): 1832-1838.
- Kaladhar DSVGK and Duddukuri GR: In-vitro protease inhibition, modulation of PLA2 activity and protein interaction studies of Calotropis gigantean. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2013; 4(5): 1-4.
- Wadikar MS and Kadam VB: Antimicrobial activities of Argemone mexicana and Calotropis gigantea on root rot diseases of chickpea. Bioscience Discovery. 2014; 5(2): 248-250.
- Rajamohan S and Kalaivanan P: Antioxidant, Anti-microbial activities and GC-MS analysis of Calotropis gigantea white flowers. The Journal of Phyto-pharmacology. 2014; 3(6): 405-409.
- Priya S: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Calotropis gigantea and their potential mosquito larvicidal property. International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology. 2014; 2(2): 128-137.
- Aarti C: A review on pharmacological and biological properties of Calotropis gigantea. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research Research. 2014; 5(4): 716-719.
- Kumar S and Kaur K: Screening of neuropharmacological activities of Calotropis gigantea roots. Pharm Chem Biol Sci. 2014; 2(3): 186-196.
- Senthilkumar S and Ezhilarasu A: Screening of preliminary phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of (Calotropis gigantea and Datura metel L.) against selected pathogenic microorganisms. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Clinical Practice. 2014; 4(1): 37-41.
- Mamidala E and Gujjeti RP: Calotropis gigantea flowers extracts with HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase (RT) inhibitory activity. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 3(9): 1016-1022.
- Potdara K and Gharpure M: Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis and Calotropis Gigantea against various pathogens. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology. 2015; 6(3): 104-110.
- Hemamalini V and Mukesh Kumar DJ: Isolation and characterization of taxol producing endophytic Phoma sp. from Calotropis gigantea and its anti-proliferative studies. Journal of Academia and Industrial Research (JAIR). 2015; 3(1): 645- 649.
- Gupta A and Chaphalkar SR: Immunosuppressive activity of crude saponins from the leaves of Calotropis gigantean, Calamus roteng and Artocarpus integrifolia. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research. 2015; 6(3): 526-530.
- Vishnu P and Jain P: Methanolic root extract of Calotropis gigantea induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma by altering Bax/Bcl-2 expression. American Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 2015; 3(1): 13-17.
- Saikia HC and Das BK: Studies on the insects associated with Calotropis gigantean in Guwahati city of Assam, India. The Journal of Zoology Studies. 2015; 2(3): 06-13.
- Muti’ah R: The Effect of Calotropis gigantea leaves extract on fibrosarcoma growth and caspase 3 expression. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2016; 8(3): 167-171.
- Chandrawat P and Sharma R: The genus Calotropis: An overview on bioactive principles and their bioefficacy. Research Journal of Recent Sciences. 2016; 5(1): 61-70.
How to cite this article:
Gharge VG, Ghadge DM, Shelar PA and Yadav AV: Importance of Pharmacognostic study of medicinal plants Calotropis gigantea (Linn.): A review. Int J Pharmacognosy 2017; 4(11):363-71:.doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.4(11).363-71.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
V.G. Gharge*, D.M. Ghadge, P.A. Shelar and A.V. Yadav
Gourishankar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Satara, Maharashtra, India.
18 June, 2017
22 August, 2017
13 September, 2017
01 November, 2017