IMPORTANCE OF PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA (LINN.): A REVIEWHTML Full Text
IMPORTANCE OF PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA (LINN.): A REVIEW
Varsha G. Gharge *, Dhairyasheel M. Ghadge, Pournima A. Shelar and Adhikrao V. Yadav
Gourishankar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Limb, Satara - 415015, Maharashtra, India.
ABSTRACT: Calotropis gigantea Linn. white (Asclepiadaceae), it is a weed plant commonly known as giant milkweed. It has one of the important traditional medicines to treat various ailments. The basic aim of this study to Calotropis gigantea is one such plant. In this review, the systematic position, introduction about the plant, morphological study, phytochemistry and the economical values of the Calotropis gigantea are discussed. Calotropis gigantea is a glabrous or hoary, laticiferous shrubs or small trees, it also known as “the swallow-wort or milkweed.” Calotropis is used as a traditional medicinal plant. C. gigantea contains chemical constituents are cardenolides, flavonoids, terpenes, pregnanes, and nonprotein amino acid. The latex, leaves, flowers, bark, the root is also used as caustic, acrid, expectorant, depilatory, antihelmintic, useful in leprosy scabies ringworm of the scalp, piles, eruptions on the body, asthma, enlargement of spleen and liver, dropsy applied to painful joint swellings. This review gives a brief idea about its phytochemistry and pharmacological activity.
Calotropis gigantea, Phytochemistry, Pharmacological activity, Traditional medicinal plant
INTRODUCTION: Calotropis gigantea Linn. is a traditional medicinal plant it belongs to the family of Asclepiadaceous 1, 2 are widely distributed in Asia and Africa 3, 4, 5. Asian countries that include India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Srilanka, and China. It is commonly known as milkweed and laticiferous shrub 6. The plant grows up to 2-4.3 m long. It has oral, light green leaves and milky stem. The leaves are very much succulent 7. Plants contain many biologically active molecules with different medicinal properties 8, 9. It is popularly known because it produces a large quantity of latex and known as milkweed or swallowwort. Latexes are the source of various biologically active compounds, including glycosides, tannins, and many proteins, among others 10, 11.
Humankind first utilized materials found in the environment an empirical basis to cure various ailments. Natural products from plants and animals traditionally have provided the pharmaceutical industry with one of its relevant sources of lead compounds in search of new drugs and medicines. The search for new pharmacologically active agents from natural resources such as plants, animals, and microbes led to the discovery of many clinically useful drugs 12, 13.
Morphology: 14, 15
Root: Simple, branched, woody at the base and covered with a fissured; corky bark; branches somewhat succulent and densely white tomentose; early glabrescent. All parts of the plant exude white latex when cut or broken.
Leaves: Opposite-decussate, simple, subsessile, exstipulate; blade-oblong obovate to broadly obovate, 5-30X 2.5-15.5 cm, apex abruptly and shortly acuminate to apiculate, base cordate, margins entire, succulent, white tomentose when young, later glabrescent and glacouse.
Flowers: Bracteate, complete, bisexual, action-morphic, pentamerous, hypogynous, pedicellate, pedicel 1-3 cm long
Calyx: Sepal 5, Polysepalous, 5 lobed, shortly united at the base, glabrescent, quincuncial aestivation
Androecium: Stamens five, gynandrous, anther dithecous, coherent.
Inflorescence: A dense, multi-flowered, umbellate, peduncled cymes, arising from the nodes and appearing axillary or terminal
Gynoecium: Bicarpellary, apocarpous, styles are united at their apex, peltate stigma with five lateral stigmatic surfaces. Anthers are adnate to the stigma of forming a gynostegium.
FIG. 1: WHOLE PLANT OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LINN.
Fruit: A simple, fleshy, inflated, subglobose to obliquely ovoid follicle up to 10 cm or more in diameter.
Seeds: Many, small, flat, obovate, 6 × 5 mm, compressed with silky white pappus, 3 cm or more long.
Chemical Constituents: The chemical constituents of C. gigantea have been extensively investigated, leading to the isolation of many cardenolides 16, 17, 18, 19, flavonoids 20, terpenes 21, 22, 23, 24, pregnanes 25, 26 and a nonprotein amino acid 27.
Uses: The flower was described in ancients Ayurveda as sweet-bitter, anthelmintic, analgesic, astringent, cures inflammations, tumors, Kapha, rat-bite. The flowers are considered as a digestive, stomachic, tonic, useful in asthma, catarrh, and loss of appetite 28. Aerial parts of Calotropis gigantea reported for antidiarrheal activity 29. Latex of Calotropis gigantea evaluated for procoagulating activity associated with fibrinolytic activity 30. Alcoholic extract of the dried, peeled roots of Calotropis gigantea posses CNS activity and contraceptive activity 31, 32. Aerial parts of total aqueous extract and water-soluble fraction of Calotropis gigantea were evaluated for immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimitotic activity 31, 32, 33. Alcoholic extract of stems possesses hepatoprotective activity 34, 35.
TABLE 1: PHYTOCHEMICAL ACTIVITY OF PLANT CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA
|S. no.||Activity||Plant Part||Year||Remark|
|1||Repellant activity||Whole Plant||2005||Maximum repellent effect followed by leaf, flower, stem, and root extracts 36|
|2||Protective effect||Flowers||2008||The protective effect of the extract may be due to its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and prevent the depletion of vitamins C 37|
|3||Gastric cancer, chronic myelogenous leukemia||Roots||2008||Chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 and human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cell lines 38|
|4||Wound Healing Activity||Latex||2009||Latex treated animal’s exhibit 83.42 % reduction in wound area when compared to controls which were 76.22 %. The extract treated wounds are found to epithelize faster as compared to controls 39|
|5||Vasodilatation Effect||Latex||2009||Thus the present study reveals that the latex produces vasodilatation effect at fixed dose concentration 40|
|6||Diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and nervous disorders||Leaf and Flower||2009||It was observed that the effect of chloroform extracts of Calotropis gigantea on alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, levels are comparable to that of those produced by the positive control 41|
|7||Anti-inflammatory||Whole plants||2009||This study also proved the greater anti-inflammatory action due to the combined effect of C. gigantea and T. procumbens with Ibuprofen than Ibuprofen alone42|
|8||Anthelmintic||Latex||2009||The potency of the compound in anthelmintic activity was found to be inversely proportional to the time taken for paralysis or death of the worms.|
|9||Antitumor activity||Flower||2009||The Calotropis gigantea flower has a potent inhibitory effect against EAC cells in a dose-dependent manner 43|
|10||Antagonistic activity Antibacterial||Leaves||2010||The extract showed a significant effect on the tested organisms. The extract showed maximum zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus 44|
|11||Antihistaminic||Flowers||2010||The results obtained suggest that the ethanol extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers possess antihistaminic, mast cell stabilizing effect and hence confirms its potential role in the treatment of anaphylaxis and allergic disorders 45|
|12||Cytotoxicity||Whole plant||2010||C. gigantea and investigate preferential cytotoxicity of the insect extract, if any, on human cancer cell lines. Comparative chemical characterization by HPTLC, UV and IR studies revealed the presence of cardenolides in both the extracts and biotransformation of some of the ingested cardenolides in the insect extract 46|
|13||Antimicrobial activity||Leaves||2011||Thus it may be suggested that leaf extracts of Calotropis gigantea L. may be used to treat oral bacterial diseases 47|
|14||Diabetes; Antidiabetic||Leaves and Flowers||2011||It is concluded that chloroform extracts of Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers have significant anti-diabetic activity 48|
|15||Antibacterial activity||Leaves||2011||The leaves extract of Calotropis gigantea were screened for its antibacterial and phytochemical activities 49|
|16||Antiasthmatic, Bronchoconstriction||Roots||2011||These studies showed significant protection at lower doses while further increase in dose level showed reduced activity 50|
|17||Anti-anaphylactic and mast cell stabilizing the effect||Roots||2011||Roots containing α-and β-amyrin are reported to possess anti-lipoxygenase activity. Hence, our objective was to evaluate the effect of the methanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea (CG) root on egg albumin induced passive paw anaphylaxis and compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation in rats 51|
|18||Antitumor activity||Root Bark||2011||The methanol extract (ME) of C. gigantea root bark and its chloroform soluble fraction (CF) possesses significant antitumor activity 52|
|19||Wound healing and antimicrobial properties||Latex||2011||It exhibits a wide array of pharmacological activities including wound healing and antimicrobial properties. Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpenoid was extracted for the first time from the latex of Calotropis gigantea and characterized by spectral studies. The presence of lupeol in the latex in appreciable amounts may account for its various biological activities 53|
|20||Asthma||Root||2011||These results suggest that CG may prove to be a potential therapeutic drug for treating asthma owing to its anti-inflammatory, anti-lipoxygenase and antioxidant activities 54|
|21||cytotoxic activity||Root||2011||The ethanolic root extract of C. gigantea exhibits potent cytotoxic property comparable to that of standard drug. Therefore, this might be utilized for the development of novel anticancer drug leads 55|
|22||Antimicrobial Activity||Whole plant||2012||This plant showed significantly showed significant antibacterial and antifungal effect against most of the pathogenic organic organisms: Bacillus subtilis [MTCC (121)], Staphylococcus aureus [MTCC (96)], Pseudomonas aeruginosa [MTCC (429)], Escherichia coli [MTCC (443)], and two fungi Candida albicans [MTCC (183)], Tinea capitis [MTCC (7739)] 56|
|23||Cervical cancer||The aerial part of the plant||2012||The docking analysis showed that all the sterol compounds showed the docking energy in the range of -12 to 16 Kcal/mol. The desmosterol exhibits higher docking energy, showing the maximum potential against the HPV16 E6 cervical
|24||Mosquito repellent activity||Leaves||2012||These results suggest that the leaves of C. gigantea have the potential to be used as a natural source for the development of new, safe, potential and eco-friendly insecticide for the control of C. gelidus and C. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes 58|
|25||Antioxidant||Root||2012||The plant extract possess high antioxidant activity when compared with standard ascorbic acid due to the presence of high content of various phytochemicals 59|
|26||antileishmanial activity||Whole plant||2012||These results indicated that non-polar fractions of C. gigantea have favorable leishmanicidal activity and they should be further tested against amastigotes of L. major 60|
|27||Antibacterial, antiasthmatic, free radical scavenging, wound healing, vasodilation, pro-coagulant, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, cytotoxic, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-convulsant and
|Whole plant||2012||The plant was also mentioned
in Ayurveda and Unani
for the treatment of
asthma and many other
|Leaf||2012||The present report is the first preliminary study to show the larvicidal effect of C. gigantean 62|
|29||Procoagulant activity caustic, acrid, expectorant, depilatory, antihelmintic, useful in leprosy scabies ring worm of the scalp, piles, eruptions on the body, asthma, enlargement of spleen and liver, dropsy applied to painful joint swellings||Whole plant||2012||This review gives a brief idea
about its phytochemistry
|30||Antibacterial||Whole plant||2013||Synergism between plant extract and synthetic antibiotics can develop standardization of herbal medicine for treatment and prevention of infectious diseases 64|
|31||Repellent activity||Whole plant||2013||Studied Chemical repellents have been used in the past for controlling the vectors and to control the man-vector contact 65|
|32||Repellent activity||Flower||2013||It may be concluded from the result that ethanol extract of Calotropis gigantea flower was effective in mosquito vector control and has excellent potential in controlling the mosquito 66|
|33||Antimicrobial activity||Flowers||2013||The essential oil also showed antifungal activity at a concentration of 1000 ppm against Rhizoctonia solani sasakaii (maize host) (% Inhibition = 75) when compared with standard antifungal agent 67|
|34||Protease inhibitors||White and violet varieties plant||2013||The plant has also exhibited PLA2 inhibition activity in blood agar containing egg yolk. Protein interaction network profile has shown interactions with circulatory, neural and immune system components that can modulate and simulate the mechanism in the system approach 68|
|35||Antimicrobial Activities||Leaf||2014||The plants extract for their antimicrobial activity gave significant control of two pathogenic fungi at various concentration i.e. 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent respectively 69|
|36||Antioxidant, Antimicrobial||Flower||2014||This study forms a basis of biological characterization and the importance of the compounds identified and creates many bioactive ingredients to treat many diseases 70|
|37||Larvicidal activity||Leaf||2014||These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. aegypti and A. stephensi. This method is considered as a new approach to control vectors. Therefore, this study provides the first report on the mosquito
larvicidal activity of synthesized Ag NPs against vectors 71
|38||Analgesic activity, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity, anti-diarrhoeal activity, anti-Candida activity, antibacterial activity, and antioxidant activity||Whole plant||2014||Given this, the present study was
investigated to review the phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, medicinal properties
and biological properties of
Calotropis gigantea 72
|39||Antianxiety; antidepressant; analgesic||Whole plant||2014||that the present studies scientifically validated traditional claims of C. gigantea for neuropharmacological activities 73|
|40||Antibacterial||Whole plant||2014||In the present investigation, the phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Calotropis gigantea and Datura metel. The solvent used chloroform, acetone and ethanol antibacterial activity maximum in Calotropis gigantea against Staphylococcus aureus Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Klebsiella sp.,
compared to Datura metel 74
|41||Anti-HIV activity||Flowers||2014||Estari Mamidala studied The AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) in humans caused by the HIV-1 (Human immunodeficiency virus type 1) remains among the leading causes of death worldwide. To establish the study was undertaken to investigate the HIV-RT inhibitory activity of Calotropis gigantea flowers extracts 75|
|42||Antimicrobial activity||Leaves||2015||The results obtained from this study inferred that the leaf extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis was effectively inhibited the growth of test organism, while Calotropis gigantae did not show the activity which is in combination with E. camaldulensis shows the more activity against all pathogens 76|
|43||Anti-proliferative activity||Leaves||2015||The taxol extracted from the fungal culture showed strong anti-proliferative activity against MCF 7 cell lines in-vitro. The findings evidenced that the endophytic fungus Phoma sp. isolated from Calotropis gigantea can act as a potential candidate for taxol production laying a foundation for further research heading towards the scale-up studies related to taxol production 77|
|44||Immunosuppressive activity||Whole plant||2015||The data suggest that saponins extracted from these medicinal plants, i.e. Calotropis gigantea, C. roteng, and A. integrifolia showed immunosuppressive activity 78|
|45||Anti-helminthic, anti-pyretic, and anti-malarial activities||Root||2015||The study showed that methanolic root extract induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells by altering Bax/BCl-2 expression. Further studies are required to obtain knowledge about the complete mechanism of its apoptosis-inducing activity 79|
|46||Toothache and earache, sprain, anxiety, pain, epilepsy and in mental disorder||Whole plant||2015||The study conducted to find out the number of insects damaging the plant Calotropis gigantea. In their natural habitat and estimate the population density of nine insects with the biology of two major insects. The field activities of insects and their habitat were recorded and emphasized the role played by climatic factors on their population under the field condition of Guwahati 80|
|47||Anticancer phytopharmaca agent||Leaves||2016||C. gigantea leaves extract at a dose of 100 and 150 mg/Kg BW were able to inhibit the growth of fibrosarcoma in experimental animals induced DMBA. This extract also improved the apoptotic index of the cell, respectively for 20.9 %; 21.5 % and 24.6 %, and increased the caspase-3 expression significantly. Based on those data, C. gigantea leaves ethanol extract was potential to develop as anticancer phytopharmaca agent 81|
|48||Antimicrobial, analgesic, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-malarial activity||Whole plant||2016||Species have been known to possess antimicrobial, analgesic, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-malarial activity, etc. They are also using as a source of methane, through anaerobic fermentation for bio-fuel production 82|
CONCLUSION: The plant Calotropis gigantea is a traditional medicinal plant having many of phytochemical values with the antimicrobial, analgesic, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-malarial activity, anti-asthmatic, free radical scavenging, wound healing, vasodilation, pro-coagulant, anti-fertility, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, cytotoxic, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-convulsant and anti-diarrheal activities. As a hydrocarbon-rich plant, this plant needs more investigation on the aspect of energy conversion.
The quality and quantity of the active principle which is important for many ailments are subjected to many factors such as climate, soil, etc. In this way standardization of the phytochemicals by these factors are very important to establish the uses of the plant more effectively.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: I solicit my deep sense of appreciation and love to my wonderful Father and Mother considers my self-privilege to have seen an entity of almighty in them. I consider myself the luckiest person being my sister Rupali always there beside me during my ups and downs in my life and also thank my teacher who will guide me for writing this review article. I am immensely thankful to G. I. P. E. R Limb, Satara for their providing all facilities required for my work.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Nil
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How to cite this article:
Gharge VG, Ghadge DM, Shelar PA and Yadav AV: Importance of pharmacognostic study of medicinal plants Calotropis gigantea (Linn.): A review. Int J Pharmacognosy 2017; 4(11): 363-71. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.4(11).363-71.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
V. G. Gharge*, D. M. Ghadge, P.A. Shelar and A.V. Yadav
Gourishankar Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Satara, Maharashtra, India.
18 June 2017
22 August 2017
13 September 2017
01 November 2017