HERBAL REMEDY FOR WOUND MANAGEMENT: A REVIEWHTML Full Text
HERBAL REMEDY FOR WOUND MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW
K. N. Yadav *, P. V. Kadam, S. K. Jagdale and M. J. Patil
Marathwada Mitra Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Kalewadi, Pune - 411033, Maharashtra, India.
ABSTRACT: Since from prehistoric times the practice of herbal medicine has existed as the primary form of medicine. India is one of leading bio-diversity center with the presence of over 50, 000 different plant species. Many plants are unexplored though they were used from ancient times in traditional system of medicine. At the same time, several plants activity was proven scientifically, and its resurgence as herbal medicines was started in the past few years. Many countries have included herbal products, in their national health programs and national health schemes, as an important alternative for the treatment of various diseases. In day to day life, people came across accidental wounding and management of wound is a complicated process. Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process of restoring damaged tissue that involves a series of independent and overlapping stages. Many plants have the potential to heal the wounds owing to a vast array of medicinal compounds they can synthesize. In most of the countries, a great number of plants are used by tribal and folklore for the treatment of wounds and burns. These natural agents induce healing and recovery of the lost tissue by several mechanisms. These phytomedicines are not only cheap and affordable but are also harmless. The presence of a wide range of life-sustaining constituents in plants has insisted scientists to examine these plants to define potential wound healing properties. The current article provides a glance on plants identified from various ethnobotanical surveys and folklore medicinal survey possessing wound healing activity and their formulations.
Wounds, Wound healing, Indian medicinal plants, Polyherbal formulations
INTRODUCTION: Since from ancient time man has taken help of nature in the treatment and prevention of many diseases. The medicinal preparations derived from nature were either in the simple form of plant parts or in the more complex form of crude extracts, mixtures, etc. Herbal products are fast becoming a part of the integrative healthcare systems of the developed nations, known as complementary and alternative systems of medicine.
In this era of advanced technology, herbal medicines still flourish and are finding exceptional acceptance in both the developing and the developed countries due to their natural origin and lesser side effects. In ancient literature, we got a reference, that plants are a rich source of a variety of chemicals, with nutritive and therapeutic properties. Herbs may be used directly as decoction or extracts, and they may be used in the production of medications.
In India, about 2000 drugs have been used to cure human diseases. Out of them, the only 1/10th are of animal and mineral origin; rest are of plant origin. The plants have healing properties due to the presence of several complex chemical substances of different compositions, e.g. secondary metabolites (Tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, etc.).
Therefore, herbal remedies can sometimes offer access to drugs or combinations of drugs, that the pharmaceutical industry has not yet exploited. Herbal medicines not only provide nutrients but also strengthen and support the action of the digestive system, speeding up the rate of processing food and improving the absorption of nutrients.
The drugs of natural origin constitute very important and valuable segments of modern medicine. Traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards medicinal plants for curing ailments such as inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, diabetes and many more because they possess lesser side effects owing to their natural origin. These extracts are formulated into different formulations for ease of administration. The novel formulations offer benefits over conventional plant actives and extract formulations. These benefits are like improved solubility, pharmacological action, bioavailability, and stability; reduced toxicity; better tissue macrophages distribution and sustained delivery of the drug. In developed countries too around 25% of medicinal drugs are of plant origin or their derivatives. The use of medicinal plants is well known among the local people in rural areas of many developing countries. World health organization (WHO) has been promoting traditional medicine as a source of less expensive, comprehensive medical care, especially in developing countries. WHO also recognized the importance of traditional medicine in the health care system. More than 80% of the world’s population still depends upon traditional medicines for various dermatological problems 1.
In day to day life, people came across accidental wounding and management of wound is a complicated process. The wound healing process involves well organized biochemical and cellular events leading to the growth and regeneration of wounded tissue specially. Healing of wounds is an important biological process involving tissue repairs and regeneration. It involves the activity of an intricate network of blood cells, cytokines, and growth factors which ultimately leads to the restoration to the normal condition of the injured skin or tissue. Wound and wound associated complications are critical issues in developing countries because of poor hygienic conditions.
Traditional medicine is an important source of potentially useful new compounds for wound healing property. Wound care aims at wound healing in the shortest possible time with minimal pain, discomfort, and damage to the patients. It must occur in a physiologic environment conducive to tissue repair and regeneration 2.
Wound and Wound Types: A wound is defined as damage or disruption to the normal anatomical structure and function. This can range from a simple break in the epithelial integrity of the skin, or it can be deeper, extending into subcutaneous tissue with damage to other structures such as tendons, muscles, vessels, nerves, parenchymal organs, and even bone.
Wounds are classified on the underlying cause of wound creation and the basis of physiology of wound healing as,
- Open wounds
- Closed wounds
- Acute wounds
- Chronic wounds
The Phases of Wound Healing are: In the wound healing process, both cellular and matrix compounds work to reestablish the integrity of damaged tissue and replacement of lost tissue. These overlapping series can be classified into four stages:
- Proliferation or granulation
- Remodeling or maturation
Hemostasis: Hemostasis occurs within minutes of the initial injury except there are underlying clotting disorders. In hemostasis, the first response to injury is bleeding. Bleeding is an effective way to wash out bacteria that are on the surface of the skin. Vasoconstrictive substances are discharged by platelets to assist wound healing process. Under the influence of ADP leaking from damaged tissues the platelets aggregate and adhere to the exposed collagen. They also secrete factors which interact with and motivate the intrinsic clotting cascade through the creation of thrombin, which in turn initiates the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen.
Fibrin strengthens platelet aggregation into a strong hemostatic plug. Finally, platelet-derived growth factors (PDGF) are also secreted. The clot dries out and creates a hard surface over the wound that protects tissues underlying 3.
Inflammation Phase: This stage starts almost at the same time as hemostasis. It occurs from between few minutes to up to 24 min after injury. In this stage, histamine and serotonin are released into wound area and activate phagocytes to enter the wound area and engulf dead cells 4.
Proliferative Phase (Proliferation, Granulation, and Contraction): The granulation stage starts about four days after wound and usually continues until day 21. The epithelial cells and fibroblasts move into the injured area and grow rapidly under the hard scab to replace the damaged tissue. In proliferative phase granulation tissue is formed by the growth of capillaries, lymphatic vessels enter into the wound, and the synthesis of collagen starts providing form and strength to the injured tissue. Collagen secreted by fibroblasts acts as a framework for further dermal regeneration. Specialized fibroblast is responsible for wound contraction. Angiogenesis takes place.
Remodeling or Maturation Phase: In this stage, the shape of the final scar is determined by the formation of cellular connective tissue and strengthening of the new epithelium 5.
The Factors Affecting Wound Healing: Two types of factors influencing the wound healing.6
- Infection by tissue organization which delays healing.
- Vascularity: A wound in very vascular parts of the body heals quickly due to well-supplied blood.
- Restricted movement of the affected part.
- Exposure of ionizing radiation.
- Exposure to UV light.
- Improper diet
- Insufficient oxygen supply and tissue perfusion to the wound area.
- Hematological abnormalities also affect healing.
- Diabetes and other disease conditions.
- Administration of glucocorticoids (anti-inflammatory) delay healing 7.
Ayurveda Remedies for Healing of Wounds: Ayurveda is based on experiential knowledge of the observations and the experience over eras. More than 1000 medicinal plants are involved in the diverse managing forms of diseases 8. A large number of indigenous plants having healing activities are recorded in Ayurvedic literature. According to Ayurveda healing of the wound is “Vranaropaka.” The first reference of the wound was in Agnibesha Samhita by Maharshi Agnibesha (Varna). Maharshi Sushruta in Sushruta Samhita enlightened the healing process of the wound. According to the Ayurveda, the wound is the disruption of the lining membrane that after healing leaves a mark.
Similarly, Vranashothai inflammation is considered, to be an early phase in the wound pathogenesis. In Ayurveda wound was of classified into six types based on the reason, maybe endogenous in origin due to a defect in human functional units, or exogenous because of trauma, such as Viddha (punctured wound), Chinna (cut wound), Bhinna (perforated wound), Picchita (contusion), Kshata (lacerated wound), and Ghrista (abrasion wound). According to Sushrutasamhita, 60 beneficial steps were mentioned for the management of wounds, starting with an a sterile dressing of the affected part of the body and ending with the restoration of the normal structure and function.
These therapeutic measures were concentrated not only to hasten the healing process but also to preserve the quality and aesthetics of the healing. Many herbals play a very significant role in the wound healing process because of their ability to promote and improve the repair mechanisms in the natural way. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement and providing a moist environment to encourage the formation of a suitable atmosphere for natural healing processes 9.
The Need for Work: The management of wound healing is a complicated and lengthy process. Certain factors that influence wound healing include bacterial infection, movement of wound edges, drugs, obesity, nutritional deficiency and site of a wound. Microbial infection of wounds poses a challenge to the treatment of wounds and the process of wound healing. The main problem with wounds is the high risk of infection, hence, if an agent active against these microorganisms causing the infection is used in the healing process, it will then help to decrease the risk of infection and the overall time for wound healing can be reduced significantly. For example, it is very easy for bacteria to enter through the broken skin and penetrate the rest of the body. Bacteria colonize wounds within 48 h after injury and bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Streptococcus spp. may cause infection and this may prolong the inflammatory phase of wound healing.
It necessitates the use of antimicrobial agents either topically or systematically to prevent infection of wounds and to speed up the process of wound healing. Several drug classes have been used in the management of wounds, major among these are the antibiotics. Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents and natural antioxidants. Antioxidants play a determining role in the progression of wound healing. Also, anti-inflammatory agents act as a key role in the wound healing process and preventing exacerbating wound conditions. Antimicrobial agents are also useful in the management of microbial infection which may concomitantly occur in severe and chronic wounds. The topical application of antimicrobial agents or extracts is considered as an efficient therapy for destroying microbial populations.
It owes to availability of the active at wound sites enhancing healing activity. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement and providing a moist environment to encourage the formation of the appropriate environment for the natural healing process. A folklore tradition in India uses a large number of plants for the treatment of cuts, wounds, and burns. The medicinal property of plants used in traditional systems is because of phytoconstituents present within them which are responsible for physiological action. It has inspired many researchers to validate the claims and to discover the mechanisms which possibly could explain the potentials of these herbs on wound repair processes. Many natural products laboratories are now focusing their efforts mainly to identify the numerous phytopharmaceuticals. For the discovery of new potent drugs, the selection of herbal extracts has been of great curiosity to the scientists. Several reports have appeared in the literature concerning the antibacterial, wound healing activity and anti-inflammatory activity of various plants, but the huge majority has yet to be explored. There is a need for availability of collective information regarding medicinal plant and their wound healing activity along with development and evaluation of herbal formulations for safe, effective and universally accepted use.
The present article contains the collective data of plants having wound healing activity and their formulations. Many wound healing formulations are available in diverse dosage forms which are having their advantages and disadvantages. An exhaustive literature survey was conducted for research articles on wound healing activity from the last ten years; the collected data were summarized.
TABLE 1: LITERATURE EXPLORING WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
|S. no.||Author’s name||Year||Title of paper||Plant name||Type of formulation|
|1||Avinash S, Gowda DV, Suresh J, Aravind Ram A S, Atul Srivastava1
and Riyaz Ali M. Osmani10
|2016||Formulation and evaluation of topical gel using Eupatorium glandulosum michx. for wound healing activity||Eupatorium glandulosum
|2||M A Muqeem Nasir, N. Lal Mohammed, S. Roshan, Mohd. Wasif Ahmed 11||2016||Wound healing activity of poly herbal formulation in albino rats using Excision wound model, incision wound model, dead space wound model and Burn wound model||Curcuma longa, Eclipta alba, and Tridax procumbens||Gel|
|3||Rajput Rekha T, Gohil Kashmira J, Singh Poonam, and Singh Surendra12||2015||Development of wound healing herbal formulation
“Herbal Wound Guard”
|leaves of Ficusreligiosa, Menthaarvensis, roots of Rauwolfia serpentina||
|4||Fedelic Ashish Toppo, Rajesh Singh Pawar 13||2015||Development, optimization, and evaluation of different herbal formulations for wound healing||Aegle marmelos leaves, Mucunapruriens seeds||gel, ointment|
|5||Mohammad Reza Farahpour, Peyman Emami, Sina Jangkhahe Ghayour 14||2014||In-vitro antioxidant properties and wound healing activity of hydroethanolic turmeric rhizome extract (Zingiberaceae)||Turmeric Rhizome||ointment|
|6||Dattatrya V. Kature, Sujit T. Karpe and Sohrab A. Shaikh 15||2014||Preparation and evaluation of polyherbal formulation for its wound healing activity||Tridax procumbens, Curcuma longa, Aloe vera||ointment|
|7||Trailokya Das, Jiban Debnath, Bipul Nath, Suvakanta Dash 16||2014||Formulation and evaluation of an herbal cream for wound healing activity||Panax ginseng, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Clerodendrum indicum, Arnica Montana,
Rose hip oil
|8||Meera Sumanth, Bhargavi YR 17||2014||Evaluation of the wound-healing effect of Ziziphus mauritiana L. leaf extract in rats||Ziziphus
|9||M. Ismail Shareef, P. Jagan Mohan Reddy, Gopinath SM, Dayananda KS, Ajay Mandal, Purushotham KM 18||2014||Evaluation of wound healing activity of polyherbal formulation of roots of Terminalia arjuna||Terminalia arjuna, Ficusreligiosa, Curcuma longa, Tamarindus indica||ointment|
|10||Vamsi S, Satish C, Nagaveni K, Jyothi M Joy, Latha P 19||2014||Formulation and evaluation of polyherbal wound healing ointment||Lantana camara (leaves), Tamarindus indicus (leaves), Psidium guajava (leaves), Curcuma longa (rhizomes)||ointment|
|11||Ashwini Singh, NPS Sengar 20||2014||Evaluation of polyherbal formulation for wound healing activity using excision model||leaves of Azadirchtaindica, Cassia fistula, Eucalyptus globulus, bulbs
of Allium sativum
|12||Manimaran S, Nithya and Praveen TK 21||2014||Development and screening of topical herbal cream formulations for antimicrobial and wound healing activity||Eupatorium glandulosum Hook, Cissus quadrangularis Linn.||Cream|
|13||Kavitha AN, Deepthi V and Naira Nayeem 22||2013||Design, formulation, and evaluation of a polyherbal ointment for its wound healing activity||leaves of Tectona grandis, Ficusreligiosa, Caesalpinia pulcherrima||ointment|
|14||Alaa A. Abdulrasool, Zena M. Fahmi, Enas J. Khadeem 23||2013||A relative assess on wound healing and anti-scar activity of crude Echinops heterophyllus extract and some of its bioactive fractions||Echinops heterophyllus||extract|
|15||Vyas Palak, Prajapati PK, Shukla VJ 24||2013||An herbal wound healing gel prepared with Pachavalkala Kwatha, Nimba Kwatha and Kumari Swarasa with their physicochemical parameters||The barks of five plants viz. Ficus bengalensis Ficus glomerata Ficus religiosa Thespesia populnea Soland. Ficus lecor Buch Azadirachta indica Aloe vera (leaf)||Gel|
|16||KuldeepGanju and A. K. Pathak25||2013||Evaluation of wound healing activity of the polyherbal and Euphorbia hirta formulations.||Tridax procumbens, Euphorbia hirta, Eclipta alba, dried rhizome of Curcuma longa and gel of Aloe barbadensis||Ointment|
|17||Nwala CO, Akaninwor JO, Monanu M O.26||2013||Phytochemical screening and wound healing activities of extracts of Jatropha curcas leaf formulated in a simple ointment Base||Jatropha curcas leaf extract||Ointment|
|18||SailajaDhanekula, Prathima Srinivas, Sadanandam Mamidi27||2013||Formulation and evaluation of herbal gels for antimicrobial and wound healing activity||Phyllanthus niruri and Aloe vera||Gel|
|19||P Arulpriya And P Lalitha28||2013||the wound healing potential of aerial roots of Rhaphidophora aurea (Linden Ex Andre) Climbed over Lawsonia inermis||Rhaphidophora aurea
|20||K. Anitha, K. Jaswitha, P. Subhashini, V. Annapurna, T. Sanjeev Rao, C.K. Ashok Kumar 5||2013||Wound Healing Activity of Salvia officinalis (Sage)||Salvia officinalis||Extract|
|21||SB. Ramane, VN. Syed and KR. Biyani 29||2013||Wound healing activity of polyherbal gel||Azadirachta indica leaves extract, Carica papaya fruit extract, and Honey||Gel|
|22||SantalaxmeVijendren, Shankar Jothi, KushhaRajandran, Vignesh Muruganandham 30||2012||Assessment of in-vitro wound healing activity of the Tinospora crispa Extracts||Tinospora crispa||Ointments|
|23||Sushil S. Pimpare, Yogesh T. Sonawane, Chetan A. Chaudhari, Lalit P. Sali, Naveenkumar
P. Jain and Chhaya H. Gadgoli 31
|2012||Wound healing activity of topical application form based on herbomineral formulation||Mimusops elengi bark along with Yashad Bhasma||Ointment|
|24||Mohammed Haneefa KP, Anu Abraham, Saraswathi R, Guru Prasad Mohanta, Chandini Nayar 32||2012||Formulation and evaluation of herbal gel of Basella alba for wound healing activity.||leaves of Basella alba||Gel|
|25||Pulak Majumder 33||2012||Evaluation of wound healing potential of crude extracts of Zyziphus oenolpia l. Mill (Indian jujuba) in wistar rats||Zyziphus oenolpia||Ointment|
|26||Mahapatra Annada Prasad, Mishra Dipak Kumar, Panda Prabhudutta 34||2012||Formulation and evaluation of cream prepared from Croton sparsiflorus Morong for its wound healing potential||Croton sparsiflorus Morong||Cream|
|27||Radhika Gadekar, Manoj Kumar Saurabh, GulabS.Thakur, Avinash Saurabh 35||2012||Study of formulation, characterization and wound healing potential of transdermal patches of curcumin||Curcumin||Curcumin patch|
|28||Alexandra Gaspar, OanaCraciunescu, Lucia Moldovan, Elena Ganea 36||2012||New composites collagen – polyphenols as a potential dressing for wound care||Arnica montana L., Artemisia absinthium L., Urticadioica L||Wound Dressings|
|29||Krishnamoorthy JR, Sumitira S, Ranjith MS, Gokulshankar S, Ranganathan S, Mohanty BK, Prabhakaran G 37
|2012||An in-vitro study of the wound healing effect of a poly-herbal formulation as evidenced by enhanced cell proliferation and cell migration||Wrightia tinctoria, Aloe vera, Terminalia chebula, Curcuma longa||Carbomer based gel with bees wax|
|30||ShindeAnilkumar J, Kade Kishorkumar M, Kadam Atul R, More Harinath N 38||2011||Chitosan gel formulation for wound healing activity||Chitosan||Gel|
|Ogwang PE, Nyafuono J, Agwaya Moses, Omujal F, Tumusiime HR Kyakulaga AH 39||2011||Preclinical efficacy and safety of herbal formulation for the management
|Zanthoxylum chalybeum, Warbugia ugandensis||Herbal formulation (Jena)|
|32||Nikunjana A. Patel, Megha Patel, Rakesh P. Patel 40||2011||Formulation and evaluation of polyherbal gel for wound healing||Terminalia arjuna, Centella asiatica, and Curcuma longa||Gel|
|33||Patil BS and Mastiholimath V 41||2011||Wound healing activity of hydrogel obtained from pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seed husk||Cajanus cajan||Hydrogel|
|34||MemfinEkpo, Herbert Mbagwu, Clement Jackson, Mary Eno 42||2011||Antimicrobial and wound healing activities of Centrosema pubescens (Leguminosae)||Centrosema pubescens||Extract|
|35||PatilSuhas A, Joshi VG 43||2011||Evaluation of antibacterial and wound healing activity of leaves of Mussaenda frondosa Linn.||Mussaenda frondosa||Extract|
|36||Ivana Binić, Aleksandar Janković, Milan Miladinović, ĐorđeGocev,
DimitrijeJanković and Zoran Vrućinić 44
|2011||Evaluation of healing effects of new herbal formulation on venous leg ulcer, a pilot study was done||Allii bulbus, Hyperici herba and Calendul aeflos||Ointment (Dermaplant G)|
|37||Prabhudutta Panda 45||2011||Formulation and evaluation of topical dosage form of Alangium salvifolium linn. and their wound healing activity||Alangium salvifolium||Ointment & gel|
|38||Sainuddin T , K.P M 46||2011||Formulation and pharmacological evaluation of herbal gel of Pothos scandens Linn.||Pothos scandens||Gel|
|39||V. M. Thakare, R. Y. Chaudhari, V.R. Patil 47||2011||Wound healing evaluation of some herbal formulations containing Curcuma Longa and Cynodon dactylon extract||Curcuma longa and Cynodon dactylon||Cream|
|40||Attama AA, Uzor PF, Nnadi CO, Okafor CG 48||2011||Evaluation of the wound healing activity of gel formulations of leaf extract of Aspila africana Fam. Compositae||Aspila africana||Gel|
|41||CananSevimli-Gür, I˙lyasOnbasılar, Pergin Atilla, RükanGenc¸, Nur ¸ cakar, I˙smet Deliloglu-Gürhana, Erdal Bedir 49||2010||In-vitro growth stimulatory and in vivo wound healing studies on cycloartane-type saponins of Astragalus genus||Astragalus genus||Isolated compound|
|42||Omale James and Emmanuel T. Friday 50||2010||Phytochemical composition, bioactivity, and wound healing potential of Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extract||Euphorbia heterophylla||Ointment|
|43||Jagtap NS, Khadabadi SS, Farooqui IA, NalamwarVP, Sawarkar HA 51||2009||Development and evaluation of herbal wound healing formulations||Aerial parts of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban and rhizomes of Curcuma longa||Cream|
|44||Jain Sachin, Jain Neetesh, Tiwari A, Balekar N and Jain D K 52||2009||A simple evaluation of wound healing activity of polyherbal formulation of roots of Ageratum conyzoides Linn.||Ageratum conyzoides
Ageratum conyzoides, Ficus religiosa, Curcuma longa, Tamarindus indica
|45||Md. Shafiuddin, Abdullah Khan and Sadath Ali 53||2009||Wound healing activity of the traditional herbal formulation||Comphora officinarum (Kafoor), Shorea robusta (Raal), Beeswax (Apis mellifera), Acacia catechu (Katha safeed), Sesamum indicum (Til oil), and Azadirachta indica (Neem oil)||Oil|
|46||Akanksha D, Vikas G, Neetesh KJ, Shailendra S, Neelam B, Dinesh KJ 54||2009||Formulated neomycin sulphate ointment containing natural wound healing agent Curcuma longa||Curcuma longa||Ointment|
|47||Sanjay Prahalad Umachigi, Jayaveera K. Ashok kumar C.K. 55||2009||Evaluation of wound healing potential of polyherbal formulation||Quercus infectoria, whole plants of Couroupita guianensis, Anthocephalus cadamba||Gel|
|48||Esimone CO, Nworu CS, Jackson CL 56||2009||Cutaneous wound healing activity of a herbal ointment containing the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae)||Jatropha curcas||Ointment|
|49||Nainwal P, Kalra K 57||2009||Study on the wound activity potential on the aqueous extract of the bark of Myrica esculenta Buch. & Ham.||Myrica esculenta Buch
Ham. Myrica esculenta
|50||Karodi R, Jadhav M, Rub R, Bafna A 58||2009||Evaluation of the wound healing activity of a crude extract of Rubia cordifolia L. (Indian madder) in mice||Rubia cordifolia||Hydrogel|
|51||Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S 59||2009||Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidence||Acalypha indica, Anacardium occidentale, Areca catechu, Calotropis gigantea, Cissampelos pareira, Cleome viscosa, Eupatorium odoratum, Euphorbia hirta,
Ficus racemosa, Ixora coccinia, Morinda pubescens, Opuntia dillenii, Pongamia pinnata, Scoparia dulcis and Vitex altissima
|52||Shikha Srivastava, Nidhi Mishra 60||2009||Evaluation of polyherbal formulation for wound healing activity||Curcuma longa,
and Eclipta alba
|53||Demirci S, Doğan A, Demirci Y, Şahin F 61||2008||In-vitro wound healing activity of methanol extract of Verbascum speciosum||Verbascum speciosum||Extract|
|54||R. Sudeendra Bhat, J. Shankrappa,
HG Shivakumar 62
|2007||Formulation and evaluation of polyherbal wound treatments||Azadirachta indica, Tridax procumbens, Curcuma longa||Ointment & gel|
|55||Muthusamy Senthil Kumar, Ramasamy Sripriya, Harinarayanan Vijaya Raghavan and Praveen Kumar Sehgal 63||2006||The wound healing potential of Cassia fistula on an infected albino rat model||Cassia fistula||Ointment|
|56||K.F. Chaha, C.A. Eze, C.E. Emuelosi, C.O. Esimone 64||2006||Antibacterial and wound healing properties of methanolic extracts of some Nigerian medicinal plants||Ageratum conyzoides, Anthocleista djalonensis, Napoleona imperialis, Ocimum gratissimum, Psidium guajava||Methanolic extracts|
Ibezim EC, Chah KF 65
|2006||The wound healing effect of herbal ointments formulated with Napoleona imperialis||Napoleon imperialis||Ointments|
CONCLUSION: This review gives ready reference of plants having wound healing potential and their formulations. Maximum probable chemical constituents responsible for wound healing are tannins, phenols, few alkaloids, and flavonoids. These plants are more potent healers because they encourage the repair mechanism naturally. These phytomedicines are not only cheap and affordable but are also harmless. These plants should be subjected to preclinical and clinical studies to determine their effectiveness. Scientists from divergent fields are investigating new plants with an eye to their wound healing usefulness. This information will be helpful for the researcher to develop new Wound healing formulations for use.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Authors are grateful to Marathwada Mitramandal’s College of Pharmacy, Kalewadi - Pune, for providing the necessary facility to carry out the study.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: Authors declare no conflict of interest.
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How to cite this article:
Yadav KN, Kadam PV, Jagdale SK and Patil MJ: Herbal remedy for wound management: a review. Int J Pharmacognosy 2018; 5(8): 440-49. doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.5(8).440-49.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
K. N. Yadav *, P. V. Kadam, S. K. Jagdale and M. J. Patil
Marathwada Mitra Mandal’s College of Pharmacy, Kalewadi, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
20 April 2018
05 June 2018
13 June 2018
01 August 2018