A BRIEF REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PLANT AND SCREENING METHOD OF ANTILITHIATIC AVTIVITYHTML Full Text
A BRIEF REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PLANT AND SCREENING METHOD OF ANTILITHIATIC AVTIVITY
Dilip Kumar Chanchal *, Pankaj Niranjan, Shashi Alok, Surabhi Kulshreshtha, Archana Dongray and Shweta Dwivedi
Department of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (U.P.), India
ABSTRACT: Kidney stones is a growing global problem, It is also known as Urolithiasis. Lithiasis is a condition where urinary calculus is formed in the kidney and urinary tract. It is a complicated urinary disorder that has gravely troubled the health and quality of human life. Urinary stones affect 10-12% of the population in industrialized countries. There are only few geographical areas in which the stone disease is rare e.g. Germany and in the coastal areas of Japan. Conventional agents are being used to control kidney stone along with lifestyle management. Medicinal plants are found to be useful in this metabolic disorder from ancient days due to its no or low-toxic nature, easily available in rural areas, cheap, there are less chances of recurrence. The purpose of this paper is to critically review available literature on various medicinal plants with their antilithiatic activity and screening method of this activity in order to develop effective drug to treat the disease.
Antilithiatic, Renal stone, Kidney, Medicinal plants, Screening methods
INTRODUCTION: Lithiasis is the formation of calculi (stone) in the kidney and urinary tract that prominently cause variable degree of pain in abdomen and the groin, bleeding from urethra, pus in the urine, and further may lead to secondary infection. It is one of the most common affictions found in humans 1.
Urine analysis is one of the important factors in determining the type of crystals. Calcium oxalate stone is one of the major types which occupy about 75% of the total population.
The management of this ailment mainly involves techniques like extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, however, the prevention of recurrence of stone formation is not assured. Besides, these treatments cause undesirable side effects such as hemorrhage, hypertension, tubular necrosis and subsequent fibrosis of the kidney leading to cell injury and recurrence of renal stone formation 2. However, these procedure are highly costly and with these procedures recurrence is quite common 3.
Many remedies have been employed during the ages to treat urinary stones. In the traditional systems of medicines, most of the remedies were taken from plants and they were proved to be useful though the rationale behind their use is not well established through systematic pharmacological and clinical studies except for some composite herbal drugs and plants. Pharmacotherapy can reduce the reccurence rate. The use of plant products with claimed uses in the traditional systems of medicines assume importance 4, 5.
TABLE 1: LIST OF MEDICINAL PLANT USED IN THE TREATMENT OF LITHIASI
|Sr.no||Scientific name||Common name||Family||Plant part used|
|1||Abelmoschus moschatus||Galu Gasturi||Malvaceae||Herbs 6|
|2||Alhagi mannifera||Camels Thorn||fabaceae||Roots 7|
|3||Apium graveolens||Lavender||Apiaceae||Flowers 8|
|4||Asparagus racemosus||Indian asparagus||Asparagaceae||Roots 9|
|5||Avverhoa carambola||Heinous-jom||averrhoeaceae||Fruit 10|
|6||Bambusa nutans Wall.||Ootang||Poaceae||Shoots 10|
|7||Barbarea vulgaris||Rocket||Brassicaceae||Roots, leaves 11|
|8||Bauhinia acuminate linn.||Chingthao||Caesalpiniaceae||Bark or leaves 12|
|9||Benincasa hispida (Thund.) Cogn.||Torobot||Cucurbitaceae||Fruit 12|
|10||Berginia ligulata||Pasanabheda||Saxifragaceae||Rhizome 13|
|11||Boerhavvia diffusa||Punarnava, Hogweed||Nyctaginaceae||Root 14|
|12||Bonnaya brachiata Link & Otto.||Kihommaan||Serophulariaceae||Whole plant 15|
|13||Bridolia montana||Chikitsa silianam||Euphorbiaceae||Bark 8|
|14||Bryophyllum pinnatum||Patharchata, Ajuba, Parnbeeja||Crassulaceae||Fresh leaf juice16|
|15||Capsella bursapastor l. Medik||Mothers heart||Brassiaceae||Entire herb 7|
|16||Cardamine hirsute Linn.||Chantruk maan||Brassicaceae||Whole plant except root 17|
|17||Carica papaya Linn.||Awathabi||Caricaceae||Young fruit 17|
|18||Celosia argentea Linn.||Haorei-angouba||Amaranthaceae||Roots 12|
|19||Celtis australis Linn.||Heikreng||Urticaceae||Leaves 12|
|20||Citrus medica Linn.||Bijoru||Rutaceae||Unripe fruits 18|
|21||Coleus aromaticus||Country borage||Lamiaceae||Leaves 19|
|22||Costus spiralis Roscoe||Cana-do-brejo||Zingiberaceae||Whole plant 7|
|23||Crateva magna Lour.||Barna||Capparidaceae||Bark 20|
|24||Crinum asiaticum Linn.||Kanwal||Amaryllidaceae||Bulb 12|
|25||Cucumis sativus||Cucu, Cucumber||cucurbitaceae||Leaves 11|
|26||Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.||Lamthabi||Cucurbitaceae||Whole plant 21|
|27||Cuminum cyminum Linn.||Jeera||Umbelliferae||Fruits 12|
|28||Curculigo orchioides||Kali musli, golden eye grass||amaryllidaceae||Root 22|
|29||Cymbopogon citrates Stapf.||Hoana||Poaceae||Whole plant 23|
|30||Desmodium styracifolium||Korat nasi||Leguminosae||Whole plant 7|
|31||Desmodium microphyllum (Thunb.) DC||Nuggai Yensil||papilionaceae||Whole plant 12|
|32||Didymocarpus pedicillata||Stone flower, Charela, Patharphori||Gesneriaceae||Leaves 8|
|33||Docynia indica (Colebr.)||Heitoop||Rosaceae||Fruit 23|
|34||Dolichops biflorus||Kulattha, Horsegram||Fabaceae||Seeds 8|
|35||Duchesnea indica (Andr.)||Heirongkak-laba||Rosaceae||Whole plant 12|
|36||Emblica officinalis Gaertn||Heigru||Euphorbiaceae||Fruit 10|
|37||Enhydra fluctuans Lour.||Komprek-tujombi||Asteraceae||Aerial parts 10|
|38||Equisetum debile (Roxb)||Jod tod ki ghas||All parts 24|
|39||Eupatorium birmanicum DC||Langthrei||Asteraceae||Leaves 12|
|40||Fragaria inzdica F.||Heirongkaklaba||Rosaceae||Vegetative part 25|
|41||Fragaria nilgerensis Schltdl. Ex.J.Gay.||Samu hongpak laba||Rosaceae||Vegetative part 10|
|42||Gomphrena celosioides||Gomphrena weed||Amaranthaceae||Whole plant 24|
|43||Grewia flavescens||Kali-siali||Tiliaceae||Root 24|
|44||Hedychium aurantiacum||Takhellei-Angangba||Zingiberaceae||Rhizome 10|
|45||Hedychium coronarium Koening||Takhellei-Anganganba||Zingiberaceae||Rhizome 12|
|46||Helianthus annuus Linn.||Numitlei||Asteraceae||Fresh leaves 12|
|47||Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) Schult||Kwa-manbi||Asclepiadaceae||Root 26|
|48||Herniaria hirsute||Hairy rupture wort||Illecebraceae||Whole plant 27|
|49||Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.||Silot sougri||Malvaceae||Leaves 12|
|50||Homonoia riparia Lour.||Tuipui-sulhla||Euphorbiaceae||Root 12|
|51||Hygrophila spinosa||Gokulakanta||Acanthaceae||Whole plant 28|
|52||Indigofera tinctoria Linn.||Neem||Papilionaceae||Roots 12|
|53||Ixora sub-sessilis Wall.ex G.Don||Shenglong||Rubiaceae||Fruits and seeds 12|
|55||Kalanchoe pinnata pers.||Patharchatta||Crassulaceae||Leaves 6, 29|
|56||Knoxia roxburghii (Spreng) M.A.Rau.||Hurim||Rubiaceae||Leaves 12|
|57||Lagenaria siceraria||Calabash, Lauki||Cucurbitaceae||Fruit 30|
|58||Lindernia ruellioides (Colsm) Pennell.||Kihomman||Linderniaceae||Whole plant 10|
|59||Macrotyloma uniflorum lam||Madras bean||Fabaceae||Seeds 7|
|60||Magnolia grandifolia Linn.||Uthambal||Magnoliaceae||Leaves 21|
|61||Mallotus philippensis (Lan) Muell.Arg.||Ureirom laba||Euphorbiaceae||Bark 12|
|62||Melothria purpusilla (Blume) Cong.||Lamthabi||Cucurbitaceae||Whole plant 25|
|63||Mentha arvensis Linn.||Podina/Nungshi hidak||Lamiaceae||Leaves 17|
|64||Mesua ferrea Linn.||Nageshor||Clusiaceae||Flower 31|
|65||Mimosa pudica Linn.||Kangphal-ikaithabi||Mimosaceae||Roots 32|
|66||Momordica dioica Roxb.ex Willd||Kaksa||Cucurbitaceae||Fruits 10|
|67||Moringa oleifera||Drum stick tree, Horse radish tree||Moringaceae||Pods, Bark, Root, Wood 7|
|68||Musa paradisica||Banana||Musaceae||Stem juice 7|
|69||Nardostachys jatamansi D.C.||Spikenard, Musk-root, Sadamanchil||Valerianaceae||Rhizomes 33|
|70||Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn||Thambal||Nelumbonaceae||Young leaves, flower and rhizomes 17|
|71||Nigella sativa||Black cumin, Small fennel||Ranunculaceae||Seeds 34|
|72||Orthosiphon spiralis (Lour) Merr||Warak leikham||Lamiaceae||Leaves 12|
|73||Oxalis corniculata Linn.||Yensil||Oxalidaceae||Leaves 12|
|74||Pavetta indica Linn.||Kukurchura||Rubiaceae||Roots 12|
|75||Pergularia daemia||Pergularia, Jittupaku, Dustapuchettu||Asclepiadaceae||Whole plant 35|
|76||Phyllanthus niruri||Stone breaker||Euphorbiaceae||Whole plant 27|
|77||Piper nigrum Linn.||Gul||Piperaceae||Seeds 10|
|78||Piper longum Linn.||Taboppi||Piperaceae||Leaves 12|
|79||Polygonatum multiflorum Allioni.||Kundalei Agouba Thondaba||Liliaceae||Root 12|
|80||Potentilla anserine Linn.||Samu Khongpak||Rosaceae||Whole plant 12|
|81||Ranunculus sceleratus Linn.||Kakyel-khujil||Ranunculaceae||Whole plant 15|
|82||Rhus semialata Murr.||Heimang||Anacardiaceae||Shoots, Leaves and Fruit 26|
|83||Rhus succedanea Linn.||Heimang||Anacardiaceae||The powder of the fruits 12|
|84||Rotula aquatic||Pashanabedha||Boraginaceae||Roots 7|
|85||Rubia cordifolia||Madder||Rubiaceae||Root 36|
|86||Rubus niveus thumb.||Heijampat||Rosaceae||Leaves 12|
|87||Saccharum officinarum||Chu||Poaceae||Stem 32|
|88||Santalum album Linn.||Cha-chandan||Santalaceae||Oil and powder of the wood 37|
|89||Sesamum indicum Linn.||Thoiding amuba||Pedaliaceae||Seeds 12|
|90||Sida acuta Burm.||Uhal||Malvaceae||Roots 12|
|91||Smilax lanceaefolia Roxb.||Kukur||Liliaceae||Rhizome 38|
|92||Solanum nigrum Linn.||Leipungkhanga||Solanaceae||Seeds 12|
|93||Solanum surattence||Yellow-berried nightshade||Solanaceae||Root 8|
|94||Syzygium aromaticum (Linn) Merr. And Perry||Long||Myrtaceae||Flower bud 10|
|95||Swertia chirata||Chiretta||Gentianaceae||Stems 39|
|96||Tagetes erecta Linn.||Sanalei||Asteraceae||Leaves 12|
|97||Tamarindus indica Linn.||Mange hei||Casalpinaceae||Leaves 12|
|98||Terminalia arjuna Roxb||Arjuna, Arjun tree||Combrataceae||Bark 7|
|99||Thunbergia alata Boj. Ex Sims.||Lilha||Acanthaceae||Leaves 12|
|100||Tinospora cordiofolia||Guduchi, Giloy||Menispermaceae||Stems 40|
|101||Wedelia chinensis (Osb.) Merril.||Chinlenbi||Asteraceae||Whole plant 12|
|102||Xanthium strumarium Linn.||Hameng sampakpi||Asteraceae||Roots 1|
Clinical and pharmacological studies:
In recent years, a number of proprietary compositae herbal drugs have also been introduced for dissolving kidney calculi of which mention may be made Cystone and calcuri 41. Saxifraga ligueata and Tribulus terrestris are the two common plant ingredients of both these herbo-mineral preparation.
Uretreic calculus disappeared within 55 days of treatment with ‘Cystone’ a herbo-mineral composition 42. Cystone relaxes the detrusor muscles and promotes diuretics by virtue of its high content of natural mineral salts. Cystone has also been found to be useful in urolithiasis, crystalluria and urinary tract infection in oral administration of other indigenous herbo-mineral drug calculi (2 TDS) in 40 cases of ureteric calculi, showed passing of disintegrated or intact stones through urine in 25 (68.85%) cases 43. Pharmacologically, Berginia ligulata has shown no effect in preventing the stone formation but was found useful in dissolving zinc calculi in the urinary bladder in experimental rats 44. Varuna, Ghokhru and Kulatha were found to be effective in preventing the deposition of the stones in experimental rats. Vataj and Pitiaj stones did not dissolve in varuva and kulatha. Gokhru decoctions dissolve urate and cystine stones to some extent.
Kaphaj (phosphetic) stones were dissolving in all the three drugs. Among them kulatha had marked (87%) dissolving activity and stones become friable 45. There are many herbal preparation described in ayurvedic a text in which kulatha is the main ingredient. It has been described as ashmarighana (destroyer of stones) by charak, sushruta and other authorities. Sushrutra mentions its efficacy in vataj ashmari with the charecterstics of oxalate stone. Clinical investigations have been shown that out of fifteen cases urinary calculi, nine patients passed their stones within 8-10 days of treatment with dolichos biflorus. Spontaneous passage of stones was common depending upon the size, site and mobility of the calculus 46, 47.
Role of medicinal plants as antilithiatic agents:
Of late, there has been a growing resurgence and revival of interest in indigenous systems of medicine and traditional herbal remedies, which are regarded as quite safe with minimal or no side effects, cost effective, readily available and easily affordable 48-51. Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for prevention of diseases and ailments 52. Interest in herbal drugs is growing due to their efficiency, low toxicity and absence of side effects 53. People living in the interiors and inaccessible remote rural areas have excellent knowledge about medicinal utility of the local flora. People in such areas have been traditionally using indigenous folk remedies to cure various diseases for generations and passing on this knowledge orally. Because of prompt and positive effect of herbal treatment they have strong faith in their own folk medicinal preparations or crude formulations 50-53.
Mechanism of stone formation:
FIG. 1: STRUCTURE OF KIDNEY STONE
FIG. 2: STRUCTURE OF URINARY STONE
Screening Method of Lithiatic Activity:
I) Preclinical animal models of lithiatic activity:
A) ethylene glycol induced lithiasis in rats:
Chemically ethylene glycol is ethan-di-ol and is widely used as a solvent and automobile antifreeze agent 55.
Mechanism of action:
Ethylene glycol is rapidly absorbed and metabolized in liver via alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase to glycol acid. This is oxidized to glyoxylic acid which is further oxidised to oxalic acid/oxalate by glycolate oxidase/ lactate dehydrogenase, thus promoting hyperoxaluria. Hyperoxaluria is the major risk factor for lithiasis.
Dose: 0.75% v/v in drinking water for 28 days.
Healthy male wistar rats (120-200gm) are taken. They are divided into four group containing six animals. Group-I served as control and given vehicle for 28 days. Group-II, III, IV served as positive control, standard and test groups and were given ethylene glycol (0.75% v/v, p.o) for 28 days. Group-III and IV are given standard drug cystone (750 mg/kg, p.o) and test drug respectively for 28 days. On the 28th day urine and serum of all the animals are collected and all the required parameters are performed and compared 56.
- It is widely acceptable model of lithiasis for research as because, kidney being the most sensitive and principal target organ for ethylene glycol.
- Ethylene glycol is widely available organic solvent
- Modulates oxalate metabolism (oxalate metabolism is similar both in humans and rats) and deposits micro crystals.
- Oxalate induced nephrotoxicity.
- Causes cellular damage.
B) Diet induced model:
Modified lithogenic diet consist of 30% lactose rich diet and 1% ethylene glycol. The 30% lactose rich lab diet contain 3.68% sucrose, 30% lactose, 23.4% protein, 10% fat, 5.3% crude fibre, 6.9% ash minerals [Ca (0.95%); P(0.67%); Mg (0.21%)]. Vit.A22 IU/g, vit. D 4.5 IU/g, vit. E 49 IU/g.
Healthy adult male wistar rats of 150-200 gm are procured and divided into four groups.
Group I served as controland fed with regular lab diet. Group II, III, IV served as disease control, standard and test respectively and they were given modified lithogenic diet (MLD) for 28 days. Simultaneously group III & IV are given standard drug and test drug respectively from day 1 to day 28 as preventive regimen. Various biological samoles are collected, measured and compared.
Advantage of diet induced model:
- It is a non- nephrotoxic model of lithiasis for research.
- Diet induced lithiasis is an effective model as it produces stable crystal deposition 33.
C) Induction of lithiasis in rats by using sodium oxalate:
Sodium oxalate induced lithiasis is an acute model used to study the activity of lithiasis caused by hyperoxaluria.
- Dose: 70 mg/kg body wt
- Route of administration: i.p
- Treatment period: 7 days
Healthy adult wistar rats (120-200 gm) were group obtained and randomly divided into four groups, each group containing six rats. Group I as control, Group II, III and IV serves as positive control, standard and test groups respectively and injected with sodium oxalate 70 mg/kg i.p for 7 days, simultaneously III and IV group were given standard drug cystone 750 mg/kg p.o and test drug respectively from day 1 to day 7 as preventive regimen. Various biological samples were withdrawn from each rat and compared to obtain results 57.
- It takes less time (short duration)
- It is a reliable model and deposits microcrystals through a driving force hyperoxaluria as such ethylene glycol.
D) Zinc disc implantation induced urinary bladder calculi model
Male rats of wistar strain weighing 200-250 gm are used to study urinary calculi by zinc disc implantation. Rats were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone (40 mg/kg body wt, i.p). a suprapubic incision was made and urinary bladder was exposed. A small cut was made at the top of bladder and a previously weighed sterile zinc disc (2 to 48 mg/kg) was inserted into the bladder and the incision was closed with a single suture using absorbable catgut. The abdomen was closed in layers and this was performed for each rat and all the rats are recovered for one week. At the end of 28 days treatment all the animals are measured for its different parameters and compared.
1) This is a model that produces inflammation around the disc implanted area i.e., it actually causes attached calculi.
2) It is a non-nephrotoxic model.
3) It avoids the sacrifice of animals at the end of the study.
1) It is risky model.
2) It causes much more pain to the animal both due to insertion of disc and also because of surgery 18.
E) Xenoplantation model:
Stone particles were extracted by PCNL (percutaneous lithotomy) from one male patient with renal stones. The selected stone is cut with a blunt instrument into sections with a diameter of 2-3 mm, weighed and maintained in a sterile environment, prior to use.
Eight week old male rats weighing about 250-300 gm were selected and randomized into three group: control, standard and test groups. The rats were anaesthetics by intraperitonel injection of sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight) and the bladder was exposed by a suprapubic incision. Following this, a 4-5 mm incision was made at the top of the bladder and one prepared stone particle was inserted in each rat and then the bladder and the suprapubic incision was closed respectively. Ethylene glycol was supplied in drinking water at a final concentration of 1% from the second day (day 1) postoperatively for four weeks.
After four weeks, Kidney and urinary bladder were dissected and the kidneys were dehydrated in a graded ethanol series and embedded in paraffin. Renal stone formation was assessed by von Kossa histochemical staining. Bladder stone were harvested, weighed and maintained in 75% ethanol for 24 hours, prior to the stone being embedded in auto-polymerizing resin and sectioned transversely with diamond wire saw in order to select the best section pane.
Sectioned blocks were then fixed on a glass slide with thermoplastic glue and polished successively using a 1, 200 grit sandpaper and a mix of alumina polishing compounds (3, 1 and 0.3µm) with a small volume of water, until it was possible to observe the core clearly under a transmitted light microscope 58.
F) Chemically induced lithiasis in weanling rats:
Calculi is induced in the urinary tract of wealing Fischer-344 rats (postnatal day 28) in less than two weeks by exposure to terephthalic acid (TPA) at 3-5% in the diet or dimethylterephthalate (DMT) at 1-3% of diet. Specified rats of 24 which randomly divide into four groups each group containing six rats. Group-I, II, III and IV acts as control received vehicle, disease control (positive control) received (TPA)/(DMT) for two weeks, standard received (TPA/DMT) and cystone 750 mg/kg body weight p.o and the last group i.e. IV serves as a test received (TPA/DMT) plus test drug. After the treatment period various biological samples are collected and the parameters are measured and compared 59.
Weanling rats appeared to more susceptible to stone formation than adult rats.
G) Sulfamonomethoxine-Induced Urinary Calculi in Pigs:
Five Yorkshine-Durox cross-bred castrated pigs within a farrow-to-finish herd with 346 commercial crossbred pigs weighing 45-60 kg were used. They are started on a regimen of SMM (50 mg/kg body weight) orally twice a day. The affected pig’s medical history included streptococcal disease and toxoplasmosis, which were diagnosed in the third week and injected SMM (50 mg/kg body weight) once a day after toxoplasmosis was diagnosed 60.
H) Mild tubular damage for hyperoxaluric rats induces renal lithogenesis:
It is a two step or two hit model of lithogenesis used to assess the anti-lithiatic activity of test drugs. In the first step it is used to induce crystalluria (hyperoxaluria) which is necessary step but not sufficient to induce lithiasis. In the second step it causes tubular damage that induces lithiasis 61.
In -vitro crystallization:
It is the time course measurement of turbidity changes due to the crystallization in artificial urine on addition of 0.01M sodium oxalate solution. The precipitation o calcium oxalate at 37®C and pH 6.8 has been studied by the measurement of turbidity at 620 nm using UV/Visible spectrophotometer.
Preparation of artificial urine:
Sodium chloride 105.5 mmol/1, sodium phosphate 32.3 mmol/1, sodium citrate 3.21mmol/1, magnesium sulphate 3.85 mmol/1, sodium sulphate 16.95 mmol/1, potassium chloride 63.7 mmol/1, calcium chloride 4.5 mmol/1, sodium oxalate 0.3 mmol/1, ammonium hydroxide 17.9 mmol/1, and ammonium chloride 0.0028 mmol/1. The AU was prepared fresh each time and pH adjusted to 6.0.
Four test tube was taken and transferred artificial urine of 1 ml into each tube and labelled as control (1), negative control (2), standard (3) and test (4). Test tube 1 & 2 are added with ).5 ml of distilled water, except test tube (1) all the test tubes are added with 0.5 ml of 0.05 M sodium oxalate and 3 & 4 test tubes are added with standard drug and test drug respectively. Test tube are left to stand for 10 minutes. Immediately after 10 minutes the absorbance was measured in UV-Spectrophotometer at 620 nm and compared. Microscopy of urine can also be done using light microscope with objective of 40 X eye piece of 10 X 40.
CONCLUSION: As there is no proper medicine in allopathy for the management of anti-lithiasis and also the surgical treatment has the more chances of recurrence, these two factors particularly diverted the large population toward the use of herbal medicines. Medicinal plants has wide acceptance due to a large number of advantages such as lesser toxic effects safe, effective, cheap (cost effective), less chances of recurrence of disease, easily available in rural areas. The present paper provides information regarding the potential medicinal plants used in the management of anti-lithiasis and also about the screening models of anti-lithiasis inorder to develop a new drug for the management of anti-lithiasis to overcome the various disadvantages faced by the wide range of population now-a-days and get relieve from the disease. Let us hope for the development of safe and effective drug for the management of anti-lithiasis.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: The authors thank Prof. Dr. S.K. Prajapati, Head of Department of Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University. The authors also thankful to Mr. Pankaj Kumar Niranjan and Dr. Shashi Alok for his valuable suggestion during the work.
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How to cite this article:
Chanchal DK, Niranjan P, Alok S, Kulshreshtha S, Dongray A and Dwivedi S: A Brief Review on Medicinal Plant and Screening Method of Antilithiatic Avtivity. Int J Pharmacognosy 2016; 3(1): 1-9:.doi link: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.IJP.3(1).1-9.
This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
D. K. Chanchal *, P. Niranjan, S. Alok, S. Kulshreshtha, A. Dongray and S. Dwivedi
Department of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi (U.P.), India.
20 October, 2015
26 November, 2015
06 December, 2015
01 January, 2016